Two of the largest dark web marketplaces have been shut down following a “landmark” international law enforcement investigation.
The AlphaBay and Hansa sites had been associated with the trade in illicit items such as drugs, weapons, malware and stolen data.
According to Europol, there were more than 250,000 listings for illegal drugs and toxic chemicals on AlphaBay.
Hansa was seized and covertly monitored for a month before being deactivated.
The agency said it believed the bust would lead to hundreds of new investigations in Europe.
“The capability of drug traffickers and other serious criminals around the world has taken a serious hit today,” said Europol’s executive director Rob Wainwright.
It was a “landmark” operation, according to US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) director Andrew McCabe.
AlphaBay has been offline since early July, fuelling suspicions among users that a law enforcement crackdown had taken place.
‘You cannot hide’
“We know of several Americans who were killed by drugs on AlphaBay,” said US Attorney General Jeff Sessions.
“One victim was just 18 years old when in February she overdosed on a powerful synthetic opioid which she had bought on AlphaBay.”
He also said a 13-year-old boy died after overdosing on a synthetic opioid bought by a high school classmate via the site.
Mr Sessions cautioned criminals from thinking that they could evade prosecution by using the dark web: “You cannot hide,” he said, “We will find you.”
The US Department of Justice (DoJ) said that illegal drugs listed for sale on AlphaBay included heroin and fentanyl.
Investigations were led by the FBI, the US Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) and the Dutch National Police.
Police in other countries, including the UK, France and Lithuania, also contributed.
The Dutch National Police took over the Hansa marketplace on 20 June after two men in Germany were arrested and servers in Germany, The Netherlands and Lithuania were seized.
This allowed for “the covert monitoring of criminal activities on the platform” until it was eventually shut down a month later.
Ever since AlphaBay went offline earlier in July, users of the site had discussed potential alternative dark web marketplaces on online forums.
Hansa was frequently mentioned, meaning that the authorities were likely able to uncover new criminal activity on Hansa as users migrated to it from AlphaBay.
“We recorded an eight times increase in the number of human users on Hansa immediately following the takedown of AlphaBay,” said Mr Wainwright.
Analysis: Dave Lee, BBC North America technology reporter, San Francisco
The significance of today’s announcement will only truly be known over the coming year or more as authorities follow up the “many new leads” they said had been found as a result of infiltrating and shutting down these two enormous networks.
While the sites’ closure is a massive boost, the DoJ and Europol both readily acknowledge that new services will simply pop up to replace them. After all, the closure of previous dark web marketplace Silk Road in 2013 was eventually followed with AlphaBay – bigger, more lucrative and, by the looks of it, more dangerous.
What authorities really want to do is start putting significant numbers of people behind bars.
This huge coordinated action has only resulted in a handful of arrests – and one key suspect apparently took his own life seven days after being brought into custody.
It’s a start, but it’s clear such big services require an large, intricate network of criminals – and that’s what authorities are targeting.
Google is adding a personalised Facebook-style news feed to its homepage – Google.com -to show users content they may be interested in before they search.
It will display news stories, features, videos and music chosen on the basis of previous searches by the same user.
Users will also be able to click a “follow” button on search results to add topics of interest to their feed.
One analyst said the move would help Google compete with rivals.
“Google has a strong incentive to make search as useful as possible,” said Mattia Littunen, a senior research analyst at Enders Analysis.
“Facebook’s news feed is one of its main rivals. It is competing with other ways of accessing content.”
Google has been trialling a simpler version of its news feed in its smartphone app since December, and its full news feed will be added to its smartphone apps in the US first.
But the company has now confirmed it intends to add the feature to Google.com too.
Google is known for its sparse homepage, which, though mostly white space, has, according to analytics firm Alexa Internet, become the world’s most-visited website.
The feed will include news stories from a variety of publishers, to avoid the so-called filter bubble effect, where people follow only content aligned with their pre-existing point of view.
“To provide information from diverse perspectives, news stories may have multiple viewpoints from a variety of sources… and, when available, you’ll be able to fact check,” the company said in a blog post.
The search giant already offers some context-based information in its smartphone search app in the form of Google Now cards, but discontinued its personalised homepage service iGoogle in 2013.
Items in the new personalised feed can be tapped or clicked to launch a Google search for more information.
“Search ads are more lucrative than in-feed ads such as Facebook’s,” said Mr Littunen.
“Google’s business is based on selling advertising, so this gives them more contact points with consumers.”
The company did not divulge whether it would insert advertisements or sponsored posts into the feed, but Mr Littunen suggested the focus of the service was to make Google more useful and drive users to its other services.
“Google has a long term project of anticipating user needs. It’s a move to make sure people aren’t going elsewhere for information,” he told the BBC.
The video, which is still online, states a Mavic Pro drone was used to capture the footage of aeroplanes making their final descent to Sde Dov airport.
In some cases, the planes appear to be the same altitude as the drone. In others, the jets are closer to the sea.
The video also appears to show a man, filmed from above, controlling the drone while seated outside a bar.
The edited material was uploaded to YouTube on Thursday and shared on other social media the same day.
It has since clocked up more than 70,000 views, with many of the resulting comments criticising the film-maker’s “stupidity” and saying that viewers had reported it to the local authorities.
DJI – the Chinese-maker of the Mavic Pro – has also condemned the filming.
“We stand ready to assist national aviation authorities as they investigate a recent wave of photos and videos showing clear and intentional lawbreaking in ways that pose real danger to manned air traffic,” it said in a statement.
DJI said its drones came equipped with software that should prevent them flying within five miles (8km) of Sde Dov airport unless the feature had been disabled.
Consumer drones are an increasing headache for airport operators across the globe.
Earlier this month, Gatwick Airport, near London, had to close its runway and diverted flights after a UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) was spotted close by.
Most people seem to agree that “fake news” is a big problem online, but what’s the best way to deal with it? Is technology too blunt an instrument to discern truth from lies, satire from propaganda? Are human beings better at flagging up false stories?
During the run-up to the 2016 US presidential election, we were treated to headlines such as “Hillary Clinton sold weapons to Isis” and “Pope Francis endorsed Donald Trump for President”.
Both completely untrue.
But they were just two examples of a tsunami of attention-grabbing, false stories that flooded social media and the internet. We were awash with so-called “fake news”.
Many such headlines were simply trying to drive traffic to websites for the purpose of earning advertising dollars. Others though, seemed part of a concerted attempt to sway public opinion in favour of one presidential candidate or the other.
Commentators heaped opprobrium on Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg for not doing more to block such content on his influential social media platform, which now has more than two billion users worldwide.
“Of all the content on Facebook, more than 99% of what people see is authentic,” he wrote in defence last November. “Only a very small amount is fake news and hoaxes.”
But a study conducted by news website BuzzFeed revealed that fake news travelled faster and further during the US election campaign.
The 20 top-performing false election stories generated 8,711,000 shares, reactions, and comments on Facebook, whereas the 20 best-performing election stories from 19 reputable news websites generated 7,367,000 shares, reactions and comments.
“Due to our tendency as humans to believe in things that already support our opinions, it finds readers who then spread it to like-minded individuals using social media,” says Magnus Revang, research director at Gartner.
It is also working with independent fact-checking organisations, such as Snopes, to help police its pages.
“If the fact-checking organisations identify a story as false, it will get flagged as disputed and there will be a link to a corresponding article explaining why,” explained Facebook’s Adam Mosseri in April.
Snopes managing editor Brooke Binkowski tells the BBC: “We don’t really take directives from Facebook, we have a partnership, which means that if we have already debunked a story we mark it as debunked if it appears in a list of disputed news stories that is provided to us.”
Snopes uses a small editorial team to debunk, myths, urban legends and fake news, but a team of international students thinks an algorithm can do the job.
They’ve created FiB, a program that analyses news on Facebook and labels stories as “verified” or “not verified”.
“Many social media giants had rejected the idea that an algorithm could detect fake news,” says Anant Goel, FiB’s 18-year-old co-founder.
“We check the authenticity of the link itself for things such as malware, inappropriate content or how often fake news comes from that particular news site,” explains Mr Goel, originally from Mumbai, India, now studying computer science at Purdue University in the US.
“We also cross-check the content of each article across multiple databases to ensure the same thing is mentioned on other sources as well.
“Depending on both of these factors, we generate an aggregated score. Anything that gets a rating below 70% gets marked as incorrect,” he says.
FiB, which can be added as a Google Chrome extension (in the US only), won a Google “Best Moonshot” award.
Other Chrome extensions, such as B.S. Detector and Fake News Alert, aim to do similar things.
But is this labelling-by-algorithm approach the right one? Gartner’s Mr Revang has his doubts.
“The challenge is that we would then be more inclined to believe stories that didn’t have the label,” he says.
And this assumption would be “a real danger”, he believes. “You would have plenty of stories it didn’t detect, and some stories it would falsely detect.
“The real danger, however, would be that adopting AI [artificial intelligence] to label fake news would most likely trigger fake news producers to increase their sophistication in order to fool the algorithms.”
Google’s response has been to employ its army of 10,000 evaluators to flag up “offensive or upsetting” content.
So, are people always going to be better than technology at doing this kind of job?
“I actually think it would be an excellent idea if every social media network hired its own newsroom full of people,” says Ms Binkowski.
“The first network to do it, and to really go all in, would lead the way to the next phase of our social media culture.”
But Google – as you might expect – isn’t giving up on technology just yet.
This month, it awarded researchers at City, University of London £300,000 to build a web-based app called DMINR. The app combines machine learning and AI technologies to help journalists fact check and interrogate public data sets.
The team will enlist the help of 30 European newsrooms to test the tool, which is aimed at tackling the proliferation of “fake news”, as well helping journalist conduct investigations.
So should social media platforms and search engines be treated like traditional publishers?
“I don’t believe you can put the same responsibility on social media and search engines as we do on newspapers and TV channels,” says Mr Revang.
But it’s clear that some governments are losing patience with the “we’re not publishers” defence.
Germany, for example, recently voted to impose fines of up to 50m euros (£43.9m) on social media companies if they fail to remove “obviously illegal” content within 24 hours.
But perhaps we should also take more responsibility to check out the provenance of stories first before unthinkingly clicking on that “share” button.
The Australian government says it wants new laws to force tech firms such as Apple and Facebook to provide access to encrypted messages.
Some apps such as WhatsApp use end-to-end encryption, making messages unreadable if intercepted.
Australia’s Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull has warned that encrypted messaging apps could be used by criminals and terrorists.
But security experts say strong encryption protects citizens’ privacy.
What’s the issue?
Many countries, including Australia, have laws in place that can force messaging services to hand over a suspect’s communications to police with an appropriate warrant.
However, messaging companies cannot hand over messages that have been end-to-end encrypted because they do not receive a legible copy.
This encryption means ordinary citizens’ messages cannot be intercepted by criminals or spies as they travel across the internet.
But some people worry that terrorists and criminals can communicate secretly this way.
“I think most people agree that there is a problem,” said Prof Alan Woodward, a computer scientist at Surrey University.
“The trouble is trying to force companies to decrypt via legislation is the very reason end-to-end encryption was introduced – particularly by US-based firms post-Snowden – to give their global customer base confidence that no government could get them to do what the Australians now propose.”
What does Australia want?
Mr Turnbull said encryption meant online messages were “effectively dark to the reach of the law”, which he said was “not acceptable”.
He said companies had to “assist the rule of law” and provide law enforcement with access to encrypted messages.
“For this to work, the companies will have to change their technical architecture or somehow weaken the encryption,” said Prof Woodward. “Either is a bad idea.”
Some politicians have called for apps to build a “back door” into their systems, to allow law enforcement access to unencrypted messages. But such a system could also be exploited by criminals, defeating the purpose of encryption.
Mr Turnbull said he was not seeking a “back door” and wanted communications handed over in “the usual way that applies in the offline world”.
Prof Woodward said modern encryption methods had not been cracked.
But Mr Turnbull said Australian law would prevail over the laws of mathematics.
He told journalists: “The laws of mathematics are very commendable, but the only law that applies in Australia is the law of Australia.”
Formula 1 motor racing has signed a global deal with mobile app Snapchat to create exclusive content from its upcoming grand prix races.
The deal marks F1’s first commercial tie-up with a major digital service that appears on mobile devices first.
The partnership will kick-off this weekend, with coverage of the British Grand Prix on Sunday via Snapchat’s Our Stories format.
F1 is currently looking to develop the sport on several digital platforms.
The new arrangement will see footage from the racing season hosted on Snap’s editorially-curated Our Stories platform.
It will feature compilations of videos and pictures submitted from users at F1 events and locations around the world.
‘Social media strategy’
The material is intended to give a different type of coverage from that seen via more traditional broadcasters.
Material from the British Grand Prix that features on the Our Story stream will be made available to users in the UK and US.
Snap will then go on to cover other F1 races in Singapore, Japan, the US, Mexico, Brazil and Abu Dhabi.
“Our Stories allow Snapchatters at the same event to contribute their unique perspectives through video and photo Snaps to one collective Story, capturing the atmosphere and excitement,” Snapchat said.
Frank Arthofer, head of digital at F1, said: “This is the first step towards expanding our social media strategy.
“We need to continue to bring new fans to the sport – by reaching out to them on social media platforms with behind the scenes, fun and engaging content. Snap’s platform is one of the most popular among ‘millennials,’ a sector we are particularly keen on attracting, as it represents the future of our sport.”
The tribunal described Uber’s claim that its London operation was a network of 30,000 small businesses linked by a common technology platform as “faintly ridiculous”.
The company’s appeal against the employment tribunal decision will be heard later this year.
The tribunal said Uber drivers were not employees in the traditional sense, so were not entitled to the full range of employment rights, but could be classed as workers while they were using the Uber app and so were entitled to the minimum wage.
A government commissioned report by Tony Blair’s former adviser, Matthew Taylor, recommends creating a new category of worker called a “dependent contractor”, who should be given extra protections by firms such as Uber and Deliveroo.
But Ms Long-Bailey said this would not necessarily help them.
“We don’t really need a new status, the court victories that we’ve far have proved that many of these so-called self-employed people who work for the likes of Uber, for example, are workers and should be given adequate protections.
“And I do worry that if this isn’t dealt with in sufficient detail, it could undermine the court rulings of Uber, for example, which it was hoped to have wide-ranging implications for the industry.”
Ms Long-Bailey’s deputy, shadow business minister Chi Onwurah, said she used Uber, but would have to reconsider if workers’ rights were not strengthened.
The Labour MP told Sky News: “These services bring real benefits to people. As a single woman leaving a meeting at 11 o’clock at night, being able to trace and see that your Uber is approaching is a benefit.
“We are not putting the blame on consumers and users of these applications.”
But, she added, “if the regulatory form doesn’t come through then I would find it very hard to use Uber or Deliveroo because it is important that we support strong working rights”.
The potential solution only works if the ransomware secured administration privileges to the machine.
However Positive Technologies said the concept is currently too technical for most average computer users to run.
“Once you have a proof of concept of how data can be decrypted, the information security community can take this knowledge and develop automatic tools, or simplify the methodology of getting the encryption reversed,” said the firm’s Dan Tara.
Mr Tara said his team had not expected to get this result when it started investigating the outbreak.
“Recovering data from a hard drive with this method requires applying heuristics, and may take several hours,” said Head of Reverse Engineering Dmitry Sklyarov.
“The completeness of data recovery depends on many factors (disk size, free space, and fragmentation) and may be able to reach 100% for large disks that contain many standard files, such as OS [Operating Systems] and application components that are identical on many machines and have known values.”
It is impossible to work out how many victims would have had their administration privileges taken over.
Without this, the ransomware carries out a different method of encryption which is only reversible with a private key obtainable from the criminals behind it.
However the email address that was provided was initially shut down meaning that they were not contactable by victims who chose to try to pay.
‘Cause for hope’
The research team’s finding only works on the recent Petya ransomware and its variants.
“It doesn’t look like a working solution yet but it gives cause for hope,” said security expert Prof Alan Woodward, from the University of Surrey.
Salsa20, which activates when the ransomware has admin privileges, corrupts a device’s Master File Table (MFT), meaning that files are lost forever.
“What they seem to have discovered is that there’s a portion of the MFT that isn’t corrupted and they are suggesting they may have found a way of recovering that,” Prof Woodward added.
“If that is true, that would be a significant finding. It may actually allow people to recover the so-called boot disks, that contain the original operating system, which we were assuming you couldn’t do.”
Earlier this week the perpetrators of the attack appeared to have accessed the ransom payments they raised and made fresh demands.
Consumer goods giant Reckitt Benckiser, which makes Nurofen painkillers, Dettol cleaner and Durex condoms, said the attack may have cost it £110m because of lost production and delivery time, the Financial Times reported.
Internet companies should do more to tackle body shaming online, social media users have told an inquiry into how body image affects young people.
One told Parliament’s annual Youth Select Committee that “so many” young people were suffering from online abuse and feelings of inadequacy.
There should also be greater diversity in the media, the committee heard.
A Facebook and Instagram policy manager said the sites were committed to making sure users had positive experiences.
The Youth Select Committee, which comprises 11 members aged 13 to 18, chose the topic of body image to consider after nearly one million people voted it as one of the top 10 issues in the UK Youth Parliament’s “make your mark” ballot in 2016.
Danny Bowman, who once claimed to be the “world’s first selfie addict”, told the committee he saw “so many young people who are suffering online” from being bullied or body shamed.
He said his own experiences of social media led him to have a mental health problem over his body image and to him being housebound for six months.
Mr Bowman said he thought Instagram – and the images it has of “six packs left, right and centre” – was “becoming more detrimental, especially to young men”.
He added: “I think it translates into the idea of success and failure – a lot of young men are looking at these images and feeling they are inadequate, a failure…
“If we want to solve this problem we have to go directly to social media networks.”
Harnaam Kaur, a body positivity campaigner, said there was a lack of diversity in the media.
If you live in an African city you will be familiar with car parkers or guards – men who suddenly appear when you park your car. They will watch it for you and guide you out when you leave… for a small fee.
Also guarding their patches closely, they are a noticeable part of the informal economy on the continent and sometimes earn well above the average wage.
The European Union and Japan have formally agreed an outline free-trade deal.
The agreement paves the way for trading in goods without tariff barriers between two of the world’s biggest economic areas.
However, few specific details are known and a full, workable agreement may take some time.
Two of the most important sectors are Japanese cars and, for Europe, EU farming goods into Japan.
The outline plan was signed in Brussels after a meeting between the Japanese Prime Minister, Shinzo Abe, and the European Commission president, Jean-Claude Juncker, on the eve of a meeting of the G20 group of leading economies nations in Hamburg.
The president of the European Council, Donald Tusk, said the agreement showed the EU’s commitment to world trade: “We did it. We concluded EU-Japan political and trade talks. EU is more and more engaged globally.”
Mr Tusk also said the deal countered the argument put forward by some of those in favour of Brexit that the EU was unable to promote free trade.
Former senior air traffic controller Doug Maclean told BBC News aviation authorities had to “act on the safe side” in incidents involving drones.
“Drones are really very small. They are not designed to be spotted on air traffic radar.”
But he added: “Airports like Gatwick and Heathrow are very busy places, so there are lots of people aware of what a drone looks like.
“As soon as anyone sees anything like that, I am sure there is going to be a very instant report to air traffic control, who would then have to make a judgement on how dangerous the situation was.”
The British Airline Pilots’ Association’s flight safety specialist Steve Landells said the threat of drones flown near aircraft “must be addressed before we see a disaster”.
“We believe a collision, particularly with a helicopter, has the potential to be catastrophic,” he said.
The union has called for compulsory registration of drone users and said new technology should be considered, including a system where the drone transmits enough data for the police to track down the operator.
In April, the UK Airprox Board, which monitors near-miss incidents, said there had been five such incidents in one month.
This included one on the approach to Edinburgh Airport on 25 November 2016, in which a drone came within 75ft of an aircraft.
There were 70 Airprox reports involving drones coming close to aircraft over the UK in 2016. This is more than double the number for 2015.
There were 33 incidents up to May 2017. An Airprox is the official term for a situation where the distance between aircraft and their relative positions and speed were such that the safety of the aircraft may have been compromised.
Only one drone has actually struck a passenger aircraft. This happened in April 2016 to a British Airways flight approaching Heathrow. The plane, an A320 Airbus carrying 132 passengers and five crew, landed safely.
The Civil Aviation Authority recommends drones be flown at no higher than 400ft. However, the highest Airprox involving a drone was at 12,500ft.
Of the 142 Airprox incidents involving drones recorded since 2010, 40 of them were near to Heathrow. Six of them, up to May, had been near to Gatwick.
50 metres Closest drones are allowed to anyone or anything
70 Near misses involving drones in 2016, more than double the year before
The Civil Aviation Authority said there were serious consequences for people who broke the rules when flying drones.
“Drone users have to understand that when taking to the skies they are potentially flying close to one of the busiest areas of airspace in the world.
“[It is] a complex system that brings together all manner of aircraft including passenger aeroplanes, military jets, helicopters, gliders and light aircraft,” a spokesman said.
“It is totally unacceptable to fly drones close to airports and anyone flouting the rules can face severe penalties including imprisonment.”
According to Prof Dame Ottoline Leyser, who co-chairs the Royal Society’s science policy advisory group, human flourishing should be the key to how intelligent systems governed.
“This was the term that really encapsulated what we wanted to say,” she told BBC News.
“The thriving of people and communities needs to be put first, and we think Asimov’s principles can be subsumed into that.”
The report calls for a new body to ensure intelligent machines serve people rather than control them.
It says that a system of democratic supervision is essential to regulate the development of self-learning systems.
Without it they have the potential to cause great harm, the report says.
It is not warning of machines enslaving humanity, at least not yet.
But when systems that learn and make decisions independently are used in the home and across a range of commercial and public services, there is scope for plenty of bad things to happen.
The report calls for safeguards to prioritise the interests of humans over machines.
The development of such systems cannot by governed solely by technical standards. They also have to be imbued with ethical and democratic values, according to Antony Walker, who is deputy chief executive of the lobby group TechUK and another of the report’s authors.
“There are many benefits that will come out of these technologies, but the public has to have the trust and confidence that these systems are being thought through and governed properly,” he said.
The age of Asimov
The report calls for a completely new approach. It suggests a “stewardship body” of experts and interested parties should build an ethical framework for the development of artificial intelligence technologies.
It recommends four high-level principles to promote human flourishing:
Protect individual and collective rights and interests
Ensure transparency, accountability and inclusivity
Seek out good practices and learn from success and failure
Enhance existing democratic governance
And the need for a new way to govern machines is urgent. The age of Asimov is already here.
The development of autonomous vehicles, for example, raises questions about how human safety should be prioritised.
What happens in a situation where the machine has to choose between the safety of those in the vehicle and pedestrians?
There is also the issue of determining liability if there is an accident. Was it the fault of the vehicle owner or the machine?
Another example is the emergence of intelligent systems for personalised tuition.
These identify a student’s strengths and weaknesses and teach accordingly.
Should such a self-learning system be able to teach without proper guidelines?
How do we make sure that we are comfortable with the way in which the machine is directing the child, just as we are concerned about the way in which a tutor teaches a child?
These issues are not for the technology companies that develop the systems to resolve, they are for all of us.
It is for this reason that the report argues that details of intelligent systems cannot be kept secret for commercial reasons.
They have to be publicly available so that if something starts to goes wrong it can be spotted and put right.
Current regulations focus on personal data.
But they have nothing to say about the data we give away on a daily basis, through tracking of our mobile phones, our purchasing preferences, electricity smart meters and online “likes”.
There are systems that can piece together this public data and build up a personality profile that could potentially be used by insurance companies to set premiums, or by employers to assess suitability for certain jobs.
Such systems can offer huge benefits, but if unchecked we could find our life chances determined by machines.
The key, according to Prof Leyser, is that regulation has to be on a case-by-case basis.
“An algorithm to predict what books you should be recommended on Amazon is a very different thing from using an algorithm to diagnose your disease in a medical situation,” she told the BBC.
“So, it is not sensible to regulate algorithms as a whole without taking into account what it is being used for.”
The Conservative Party promised a digital charter in its manifesto, and the creation of a data use and ethics commission.
While most of the rhetoric by ministers has been about stopping the internet from being used to incite terrorism and violence, some believe that the charter and commission might also adopt some of the ideas put forward in the data governance report.
The UK’s Minister for Digital, Matt Hancock, told the BBC that it was “critical” to get the rules right on how we used data as a society.
“Data governance, and the effective and ethical use of data, are vital for the future of our economy and society,” he said.
“We are committed to continuing to work closely with industry to get this right.”
Fundamentally, intelligent systems will take off only if people trust them and how they are regulated.
Without that, the enormous potential these systems have for human flourishing will never be fully realised.
Cash will remain a part of our day-to-day lives for decades, the Bank of England’s chief cashier has said on the 50th anniversary of the ATM.
Victoria Cleland said that although the use of notes and coins in transactions is falling, cash is part of all the Bank’s future plans.
She pointed out that 94% of UK adults use cash machines.
It was 50 years ago today that the world’s first ATM was unveiled at a Barclays branch in Enfield, London.
As a tribute to the golden anniversary, Barclays has transformed the modern-day Enfield cash machine into gold.
Ms Cleland said that more than half of UK adults use an ATM at least once a week.
Cash was used in nearly half of all transactions and was also important as a store of value, she added.
Raheel Ahmed, head of customer experience at Barclays, echoed Ms Cleland’s views.
“Even though recent years have seen a huge uptake of digital banking and card payments, cash remains a crucial part of most people’s day-to-day lives – whether it is paying for groceries or doing the office coffee run – and we’re very proud of the role that Barclays has played in the history of the cash machine.”
The first cash machine came about after some hurried signing of contracts, over a pink gin, between Barclays and Scottish inventor John Shepherd-Barron, who died in 2010.
“It struck me there must be a way I could get my own money, anywhere in the world or the UK,” he told the BBC in 2007. “I hit upon the idea of a chocolate bar dispenser, but replacing chocolate with cash.”
All did not go entirely to plan with the first ATMs. When one was installed in Zurich, Switzerland, there was a mysterious malfunction. Eventually, it was found that wires from two intersecting tramlines nearby were interfering with the mechanism.
There are now about 70,000 cash machines across the UK, and 176 million cards in the UK that can be used to withdraw cash at them.
These cards were used to withdraw a total of £180bn from UK cash machines last year.
The latest developments aim to make the ATM a “bank branch in a box”. Manufacturer NCR said its research showed that 80% of the transactions typically completed inside a physical branch could be completed through a video teller at an ATM.
Portugal has the highest proportion of cash machines in western Europe with 1,516 machines per one million residents.
Sweden, typical of a Scandinavian shift towards a cashless society, has the lowest with 333 machines per one million inhabitants.
International Trade Secretary Liam Fox said: “We have seen reports in the last few days of even Cabinet ministers’ passwords being for sale online.
“We know that our public services are attacked so it is not at all surprising that there should be an attempt to hack into parliamentary emails.
“And it’s a warning to everybody, whether they are in Parliament or elsewhere, that they need to do everything possible to maintain their own cyber security.”
The latest attack was publicly revealed by Liberal Democrat peer Lord Rennard on Twitter as he asked his followers to send any “urgent messages” to him by text.
Henry Smith, Tory MP for Crawley, later tweeted: “Sorry no parliamentary email access today – we’re under cyber attack from Kim Jong Un, (Vladimir) Putin or a kid in his mom’s basement or something…”
The government’s National Security Strategy said in 2015 that the threat from cyber-attacks from both organised crime and foreign intelligence agencies was one of the “most significant risks to UK interests”.
The National Cyber Security Centre, which is part of intelligence agency GCHQ, started its operations in October last year.
The National Crime Agency said it was working with the NCSC but the centre was “leading the operational response”.
Uber boss Travis Kalanick has resigned as chief executive after pressure from shareholders.
Mr Kalanick will remain on the board of the firm, however.
His resignation comes after a review of practices at the firm and scandals including complaints of sexual harassment.
Last week he said he was taking an indefinite leave of absence following the sudden death of his mother in a boating accident.
Five major Uber investors demanded Mr Kalanick’s immediate resignation in a letter on Tuesday, the New York Times said.
Mr. Kalanick reportedly said: “I love Uber more than anything in the world and at this difficult moment in my personal life I have accepted the investors request to step aside so that Uber can go back to building rather than be distracted with another fight.”
Uber’s board said in a statement: “Travis has always put Uber first. This is a bold decision and a sign of his devotion and love for Uber.
“By stepping away, he’s taking the time to heal from his personal tragedy while giving the company room to fully embrace this new chapter in Uber’s history. We look forward to continuing to serve with him on the board.”
Dan Primack, business editor of the Axios news service, was one of the first to report the investor demands for Mr Kalanick to go.
Mr Primack said a group of investors, but particularly Bill Gurley of venture capitalist firm Benchmark, had put pressure on Mr Kalanick to resign.
“It’s important to note: Travis controlled the board in terms of votes, so really, it was a vey big uphill climb for [Mr] Gurley and the other investors to get this done,” Mr Primack said.
Uber’s future prospects were now “pretty bright”, Mr Primack added.
The firm has been searching for a chief operating officer, but now can seek out Fortune 500 chief executives to take over the top spot, he said.
The ride-hailing company has had a series of recent controversies, including the departure of other high-level executives.
Eric Alexander, the former head of Uber’s Asia-Pacific business, left after a report that he had obtained the medical records of a woman who was raped by an Uber driver in 2014.
Mr Alexander reportedly shared them with Mr Kalanick, senior vice-president Emil Michael and others.
Several prominent journalists and activists in Mexico have filed a complaint accusing the government of spying on them by hacking their phones.
The accusation follows a report in the New York Times that says they were targeted with spyware meant to be used against criminals and terrorists.
The newspaper says messages examined by forensic analysts show the software was used against government critics.
A Mexican government spokesman “categorically” denied the allegations.
The report says that the software, known as Pegasus, was sold to Mexican federal agencies by Israeli company NSO Group on the condition that it only be used to investigate criminals and terrorists.
The software can infiltrate smartphones and monitor calls, texts and other communications, the New York Times said. It can also activate a phone’s microphone or camera, effectively turning the device into a personal bug.
But instead of being used to track suspected criminals, the targets allegedly included investigative journalists, anti-corruption activists and even lawyers.
Nine people have now filed a criminal complaint. At a news conference in Mexico City, journalist Carmen Aristegui accused the state of criminal activity.
“The agents of the Mexican state, far from doing what they should be doing legally, have used our resources, our taxes, our money to commit serious crimes,” she said.
The alleged cases
Miguel Agustín Pro Juárez Centre: One of the most respected human rights groups in Mexico, it has looked into the disappearance and suspected massacre of 43 students in 2014 and other high profile cases, including a military raid that left 22 dead in 2014. Its executive director and two other senior executives allegedly received infected messages
Aristegui Noticias: Award-winning journalist Carmen Aristegui, who also hosts a daily programme on CNN en Español, has reported on suspected cases of corruption and conflict of interest, including a scandal involving the wife of President Enrique Peña Nieto acquiring a $7m (£5.5m) house from a government contractor. Two members of her investigative team and her under-age son allegedly received some 50 messages
Carlos Loret de Mola: A popular journalist at leading TV network Televisa, he allegedly received several messages containing the software
Mexican Institute for Competitiveness (IMCO): It has led efforts for anti-corruption legislation. Two senior members were allegedly targeted.
A spokesman for President Enrique Peña Nieto rejected the allegations, saying that the government carries out intelligence work against the organised crime and threats to the national security in accordance with the country’s laws, but that it does not include journalists or activists.
“The government categorically denies that any of its members carries out surveillance or interference in communications of defenders of human rights, journalists, anti-corruption activists or any other person without prior judicial authorization,” a spokesman told the BBC.
From robot simians that can clean up nuclear accidents, to powered exoskeletons that enable you to lift huge objects, robotic technologies are developing incredibly quickly. Ashitey Trebi-Ollennu, chief engineer at Nasa’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, talks us through five robots that are changing the world.
Online retail giant Amazon is buying Whole Foods in a $13.7bn (£10.7bn) deal that marks its biggest push into traditional retailing yet.
Amazon, which has long eyed the grocery business, will buy the upmarket supermarket for $42 a share.
Investors greeted the deal as game-changing for the industry, sending shares of rival grocers plunging.
But Whole Foods, which had been under pressure, climbed.
Founded in 1978 in Texas, Whole Foods was a pioneer of the move towards natural and organic foods.
It has grown to more than 460 stores in the US, Canada and the UK, and employs about 87,000 people.
Amazon founder and chief executive Jeff Bezos said: “Millions of people love Whole Foods Market because they offer the best natural and organic foods, and they make it fun to eat healthy.
“Whole Foods Market has been satisfying, delighting and nourishing customers for nearly four decades – they’re doing an amazing job and we want that to continue.”
Whole Foods has faced dissatisfaction from investors, amid falling same-store sales and increased competition. Last month, the company named a new chief financial officer and new board members.
In April, activist investor Jana Partners called the firm’s shares undervalued, noting “chronic underperformance”.
The price being paid by Amazon marks a 27% premium to the level Whole Foods’ shares closed at on Thursday. The $13.7bn value includes assumption of the grocer’s debt.
The takeover deal – the biggest in Amazon’s history – is expected to be completed in the second half of the year, pending approval by shareholders and anti-trust regulators.
Whole Foods boss John Mackey said: “This partnership presents an opportunity to maximize value for Whole Foods Market’s shareholders, while at the same time extending our mission and bringing the highest quality, experience, convenience and innovation to our customers.”
The Whole Foods brand will continue. Mr Mackey is expected to stay on as chief executive.
Whole Foods stock soared 29% on the news. Amazon shares closed up 2.4%.
Neil Saunders, managing director of GlobalData Retail, said the deal should give the grocer financial breathing room, while making it more competitive online and improving its supply chain logistics.
The takeover also makes Amazon an instant player in the grocery industry, where it has operated at the fringes since launching its food delivery service Amazon Fresh in Seattle in 2007.
Whole Foods and Amazon were staying quiet on Friday about how they might introduce technology to stores, merge their supply chains, or cross-sell Amazon products.
Brendan Witcher, principal analyst at Forrester Research in Boston, said any changes are further down the road.
But that didn’t stop instant speculation about what changes might be coming. Possibilities include:
• Lower prices? Amazon has a long history of deferring profits in favour of winning customers with low prices. It could try a similar strategy at Whole Foods, now knocked by some as “Whole Paycheck”.
• Techie shopping? Amazon is also interested in how technology can make shopping more efficient. The firm’s Alexa robot maintains shopping lists and Amazon is testing a convenience store in Seattle that operates without check-out lines.
“There is an inherent logic in the move which, in our view, brings benefits to both businesses,” Mr Saunders wrote.
Shares of other supermarket chains took a beating. The industry has already seen significant consolidation, with smaller players wiped out.
Kroger shares fell more than 9 %, Target plunged 5% and Costco Wholesale Corp. dropped about 7%.
Walmart, which announced its own $310m deal to acquire the online clothing company Bonobos, slid 4.7%.
The reaction spread to companies in Europe. Dutch retailer Ahold Delhaize fell nearly 10%.
Mr Saunders said the deal is “potentially terrifying” for other companies.
“Although Amazon has been a looming threat to the grocery industry, the shadow it has cast has been pale and distant,” Mr Saunders wrote. “Today that changed.”
British security officials believe that hackers in North Korea were behind the cyber-attack that crippled parts of the NHS and other organisations around the world last month, the BBC has learned.
Britain’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) led the international investigation.
Security sources have told the BBC that the NCSC believes that a hacking group known as Lazarus launched the attack.
The same group is believed to have targeted Sony Pictures in 2014.
The Sony hack came as the company planned to release the movie The Interview, a satire about the North Korean leadership starring Seth Rogen. The movie was eventually given a limited release after an initial delay.
The same group is also thought to have been behind the theft of money from banks.
In May, ransomware called WannaCry swept across the world, locking computers and demanding payment for them to be unlocked. The NHS in the UK was particularly badly hit.
Officials in Britain’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) began their own investigation and concluded their assessment in recent weeks.
The ransomware did not target Britain or the NHS specifically, and may well have been a money-making scheme that got out of control, particularly since the hackers do not appear to have retrieved any of the ransom money as yet.
Although the group is based in North Korea the exact role of the leadership in Pyongyang in ordering the attack is less clear.
Private sector cyber-security researchers around the world began picking apart the code to try to understand who was behind the attack soon after.
Adrian Nish, who leads the cyber threat intelligence team at BAE, saw overlaps with previous code developed by the Lazarus group.
“It seems to tie back to the same code-base and the same authors,” Nish says. “The code-overlaps are significant.”
Private sector cyber security researchers reverse engineered the code but the British assessment by the NCSC – part of the intelligence agency GCHQ – is likely to have been made based on a wider set of sources.
America’s NSA has also more recently made the link to North Korea but its assessment is not thought to have been based on as deep as an investigation as the UK, partly because the US was not hit as hard by the incident.
Officials say they have not seen any significant evidence supporting other possible culprits.
Central bank hack
North Korean hackers have been linked to money-making attacks in the past – such as the theft of $81m from the central bank of Bangladesh in 2016.
This sophisticated attack involved making transfers through the Swift payment system which, in some cases, were then laundered through casinos in the Philippines.
“It was one of the biggest bank heists of all time in physical space or in cyberspace,” says Nish, who says further activity has been seen in banks in Poland and Mexico.
The Lazarus group has also been linked to the use of ransomware – including against a South Korean supermarket chain.
Other analysts say they saw signs of North Korea investigating the bitcoin method of payment in recent months.
The May 2017 attack was indiscriminate rather than targeted. Its spread was global and may have only been slowed thanks to the work of a British researcher who was able to find a “kill switch” to slow it down.
The attacks caused huge disruption in the short term but they may have also been a strategic failure for the group behind it.
Researchers at Elliptic, a UK-based company which tracks bitcoin payments, say they have seen no withdrawals out of the wallets into which money was paid, although people are still paying in to them.
Those behind the attack may not have expected it to have spread as fast as it did.
Once they realised that their behaviour was drawing global attention, the risks of moving the money may have been seen as too high given the relatively small amount involved, leaving them with little to show for their work.
The revelation of the link to North Korea will raise difficult questions about what can be done to respond or deter such behaviour in the future.
Uber confirmed to the BBC that “the board unanimously voted to adopt all the recommendations of the Holder Report. The recommendations will be released to the employees on Tuesday.”
It has not been confirmed what those recommendations are. It is possible that Mr Kalanick could take time off from Uber and then return to a role with less authority, or remain as chief executive but face more scrutiny, the Reuters news agency reported.
The New York Times reported that one of Mr Holder’s recommendations was that Emil Michael, Uber’s senior vice-president of business and a close confidant of Mr Kalanick, should leave the company.
The board meeting comes just days after Uber said it had fired more than 20 people, and was taking other actions against staff, for issues including sexual harassment and bullying.
If Mr Michael does leave it would be the latest high-profile departure from Uber.
Last week Uber’s finance chief, Gautam Gupta, said he was leaving, following New York general manager, Josh Mohrer, and the head of Uber’s self-driving unit, Anthony Levandowski, out of the door.
Mr Kalanick has earned a reputation as an abrasive leader and was criticised earlier this year after being caught on video berating an Uber driver.
He said in response to the video: “I must fundamentally change as a leader and grow up.”
Uber board member Arianna Huffington said in March that Mr Kalanick needed to change his leadership style from that of a “scrappy entrepreneur” to be more like a “leader of a major global company”.
The board has been seeking to recruit a chief operating officer to assist the chief executive.
Some investors are concerned at the power Mr Kalanick has over Uber because of the number of voting shares he controls.
San Francisco-based Uber is valued at nearly $70bn (£55bn) but is yet to make a profit.
The websites of computer and technology companies and financial organisations showed a much higher level of adoption than shopping and gaming sites, for example.
“In the financial sector, almost every one of the sites we looked at had encrypted links”, Prof Woodward said, “but even in retail the adoption of the very latest standards is low.”
A quarter of the shopping sites studied were using Transport Layer Security (TLS), which offers tools including digital certificates, remote passwords, and a choice of ciphers to encrypt traffic between a website and its visitors.
But among news and sport websites fewer than 8% were found to be using the protocol.
Among those that did, many failed to make use of some of the strongest tools available, such as HSTS, which automatically pushes users accessing an unsecured version of a website on to the encrypted version instead.
‘Click on the padlock’
“It’s like news and sport content providers don’t value the security of their content,” Prof Woodward said.
“They’re leaving themselves vulnerable to attacks like cross-site scripting, where an attacker can pretend something’s come from a website when it hasn’t.”
But Prof Woodward warned against putting too much faith in sites that appear to have the most up-to-date and comprehensive security protocols in place.
“People assume that because they’re using TLS they’re having a secure conversation, but there’s no guarantee about who they’re having that secure conversation with,” he explained.
“Some of those spoof sites are using more up-to-date security than the genuine sites. You’ve got to click on that padlock and check who it is you’re talking to.”
Gamers from around the globe are heading to Los Angeles for the E3 video games showcase, which lays out what players can expect in the year ahead.
E3 is traditionally an industry-only event, but in recent years some studios have held their own showcases and broadcast them to fans online.
This year, for the first time in its 24-year history, 15,000 video game fans will be allowed to attend too.
One analyst said it was a sign of E3 adapting for modern times.
“E3 originally was a retail conference, about connecting buyers with the publishers,” said Piers Harding-Rolls of the consultancy IHS Markit.
“The industry has changed significantly since then, so E3 has to move with the times.
“It’s a process to make it much more publicly available, and it’s a good move – it keeps it relevant.”
E3 begins on Tuesday 13 July – but many games studios including Microsoft and Sony hold their own events a little earlier.
Microsoft aims ultra-high
Last year, Microsoft announced it was working on “the most powerful console ever”, code-named Project Scorpio.
The company has already described the computing power of the device, which it says will be capable of playing ultra-high definition 4K games – but this could be the first time we see the device and hear what it will be called.
“This will re-establish their credentials with the gamers who want the highest graphical capability,” said Mr Harding-Rolls.
“I’m expecting it to be more expensive than the PS4 Pro, so it’s probably not going to sell as strongly – but will give Microsoft a boost towards the end of the year.”
Nintendo expands its offer
Nintendo says its new Switch console is off to a promising start, with about three million sold, making it the company’s fastest-selling device.
The launch was buoyed by the highly-anticipated Legend Of Zelda: Breath Of The Wild, which Nintendo dedicated its entire E3 exhibition to in 2016.
To keep momentum, the Japanese games-maker will be showing off multiplayer games such as Splatoon 2, Arms and Pokken Tournament DX.
However, many players are still hopeful that Nintendo will announce some surprises – such as the first full Pokemon game for the Switch.
Sony says sales of its virtual reality kit for the PlayStation 4 have exceeded expectations, with more than a million people picking up a PS VR headset.
But the challenge for all headset developers is to show off compelling games that will encourage more people to invest in the costly kit.
“It’s a key focus for Sony, because it’s different from what Microsoft is offering with Xbox,” Mr Harding-Rolls told the BBC.
“There have been some good launch titles, such as the VR mode on Resident Evil which was very well received.
“Is spread by word of mouth because it was so impressive and frankly scary – we need more of that, big brands and big titles.”
Sony has sold more than one million virtual reality (VR) headsets, the company has said.
President of Sony Interactive Entertainment Atsushi Morita said sales had “exceeded our expectations”.
The headset, at $399 (£308), is cheaper than rival devices from Facebook and HTC.
According to research company IDC, about two million VR headsets were shipped worldwide in the first three months of 2017.
Mr Morita has high hopes for the technology.
He said: “I believe that VR technology is the greatest innovation since the birth of television.
“VR allows you to travel to World Heritage Sites or to space while staying at home.
“It’s like a time machine or a door to anywhere.”
There are two reasons why Sony is currently leading on VR, according to Piers Harding-Rolls, a gaming analyst at research company IHS Markit.
“Sony PlayStation VR is leading sales in the high-end sector because it is cheaper, but also because of Sony’s addressable market of 60 million PS4 consoles,” he said.
Facebook’s Oculus Rift currently has a $599 price-tag, while HTC’s Vive is even more expensive at $799.
Mr Harding-Rolls said VR was still a niche market but developers were beginning to come up with some interesting and immersive content such as the VR mode on the latest Resident Evil title, which he described as a “scary proposition”.
“I’m waiting for content that is truly transformational and original to VR,” he said.
“There have been games that hint at VR’s potential, but there is still more to come I’m sure.
“The introduction of peripherals with haptic feedback is a step forward, so it’s likely we will continue to get games such as first person shooters being made that use these new technologies, but I’d also like to see more exploration based titles, which build on the immersion delivered by VR.”
Uber has fired more than 20 people, and is taking other actions against staff, after a harassment investigation.
The taxi-app firm said the sackings related to sexual harassment, bullying and issues about poor company culture.
Uber has been under fire over its treatment of women staff since a former employee wrote a scathing blog post about her experience.
It led to two investigations and the uncovering of 215 complaints about harassment and other allegations.
Uber has struggled with a series of controversies in recent months, including a backlash over aggressive corporate tactics and a lawsuit from Google-owner Alphabet over allegedly stolen technology for self-driving cars.
Several high-placed executives resigned amid the turbulence, including a former head of engineering, who had failed to disclose harassment complaints at his former employer.
Chief executive Travis Kalanick’s filmed argument with an Uber driver over falling rates also fuelled criticism, leading him to say that he needed “leadership help”.
Susan Fowler, who wrote the critical blog post about Uber, said the company had ignored her complaints of sexual harassment. Widely shared, the blog prompted Mr Kalanick to launch the investigations.
Staff fired, 20; Staff put in training, 31; Final warnings, 7; Claims still under review, 57.
Uber has also appointed Eric Holder, who served as attorney general under former US president Barack Obama, to investigate the company’s broader culture.
The findings of that report have been turned over to the board and recommendations are expected to be made public next week.
Some changes are already in place.
Uber announced the hiring of two women to high profile positions this week.
Frances Frei, a Harvard Business School professor, will serve as a senior vice president for leadership and strategy, working with the head of human resources Liane Hornsey. Ms Hornsey is herself relatively new, starting at the company in January.
Bozoma Saint John, a former marketing executive at Apple, is also joining Uber as chief brand officer.
Uber employs more than 12,000 people globally.
About 36% of the workforce is female, according to a diversity report the firm published earlier this year. Women hold about 15% of the technology positions.
By Dave Lee, BBC North America technology reporter, San Francisco
It goes without saying that this issue doesn’t go away with these firings.
Uber has major questions still to answer – some of them will hopefully be addressed when more details of the report are made public.
Most troubling is why Uber’s own internal HR measures weren’t thorough or fair enough to see that the actions of 20 employees warranted dismissal.
Instead it took a brave former employee – and then an expensive, lengthy investigation – to get to that point.
So as well as detailing what it has done to address those existing complaints, Uber will now have to be very clear about how it will handle such issues in future.
Crucially, the lessons from this report should not be heeded by Uber alone. As many people have pointed out to me since we began reporting this story, this is a problem that affects the technology industry across the board.
A hands-on with the new iPad Pro and some of the new features being added to Apple’s operating system, iOS. The new update will come this autumn. The BBC’s North American technology reporter Dave Lee checked it out at Apple’s developers’ conference in San Joe, California.
Prime Minister Theresa May has been warned that her promise to tighten regulation on tech firms after the London attacks will not work.
Mrs May said areas of the internet must be closed because tech giants provided a “safe space” for terrorist ideology.
But the Open Rights Group said social media firms were not the problem, while an expert in radicalisation branded her criticism “intellectually lazy”.
Twitter, Facebook and Google said they were working hard to fight extremism.
Google (which owns Youtube) Facebook (which owns WhatsApp) and Twitter were among tech companies already facing pressure to tackle extremist content – pressure that intensified on Sunday.
Mrs May said: “We cannot allow this ideology the safe space it needs to breed.
“Yet that is precisely what the internet, and the big companies… provide.”
On ITV’s Peston on Sunday, Home Secretary Amber Rudd said an international agreement was needed for social media companies to do more to stop radicalisation.
“One (requirement) is to make sure they do more to take down the material that is radicalising people,” Mrs Rudd said.
“And secondly, to help work with us to limit the amount of end-to-end encryption that otherwise terrorists can use,” she said.
But the Open Rights Group, which campaigns for privacy and free speech online, warned that politicians risked pushing terrorists’ “vile networks” into the “darker corners of the web” by more regulation.
“The internet and companies like Facebook are not the cause of hate and violence, but tools that can be abused.
“While governments and companies should take sensible measures to stop abuse, attempts to control the internet is not the simple solution that Theresa May is claiming,” Open Rights said.
Professor Peter Neumann, director of the International Centre For The Study Of Radicalisation at King’s College London, was also critical of Mrs May.
He wrote on Twitter: “Big social media platforms have cracked down on jihadist accounts, with result that most jihadists are now using end-to-end encrypted messenger platforms e.g. Telegram.
“This has not solved problem, just made it different… moreover, few people (are) radicalised exclusively online. Blaming social media platforms is politically convenient but intellectually lazy.”
However, Dr Julia Rushchenko, a London-based research fellow at the Henry Jackson Centre for Radicalisation and Terrorism, told the BBC that Mrs May was right, and that more could be done by tech giants to root out such content.
She felt that the companies erred on the side of privacy, not security. “We all know that social media companies have been a very helpful tool for hate preachers and for extremists,” Dr Rushchenko said.
The online world had been a recruiting aid for foreign fighters, and social media needed “stricter monitoring”, both by government agencies and by third party groups that have been created to flag up extremist content.
‘No place on our platform’
However, the major social media firms said on Sunday that they were working hard to rid their networks of terrorist activity and support.
Facebook said: “Using a combination of technology and human review, we work aggressively to remove terrorist content from our platform as soon as we become aware of it – and if we become aware of an emergency involving imminent harm to someone’s safety, we notify law enforcement.”
Google said it was “committed to working in partnership with the government and NGOs to tackle these challenging and complex problems, and share the government’s commitment to ensuring terrorists do not have a voice online”.
It said it was already working on an “international forum to accelerate and strengthen our existing work in this area” and had invested hundreds of millions of pounds to fight abuse on its platforms.
Twitter said “terrorist content has no place on” its platform.
“We continue to expand the use of technology as part of a systematic approach to removing this type of content.
“We will never stop working to stay one step ahead and will continue to engage with our partners across industry, government, civil society and academia.”
Analysis: Joe Lynam, BBC business correspondent
Calling for technology companies to “do more” has become one of the first responses by politicians after terror attacks in their country.
Theresa May’s comments on that subject were not new – although the tone was.
She has already proposed a levy on internet firms, as well as sanctions on firms for failing to remove illegal content, in the Conservative party manifesto published three weeks ago.
Given that 400 hours of videos are uploaded onto Youtube every minute, and that there are 2 billion active Facebook users, clamping down on sites which encourage or promote terror needs a lot of automatic detection – as well as the human eye and judgement.
Technology companies such as Microsoft, Google, Twitter and Facebook are all part of an international panel designed to weed out and prevent terror being advocated worldwide.
That involves digitally fingerprinting violent images and videos as well as sharing a global database of users who may be extremist.
The Trump administration has approved plans to ask US visa applicants for details of their social media use.
Consular officials can now ask for social media usernames going back five years via a new questionnaire.
It also allows authorities to request email addresses, phone numbers and 15 years of biographical information.
This can be requested when “more rigorous national security security vetting” is needed, a State Department official told Reuters.
According to reports, the State Department expects that about 0.5% of visa applicants will be given the questionnaire.
Critics have argued that the checks could lead to extended, fruitless lines of inquiry or the collection of personal information not relevant to security checks.
Providing the information is voluntary, though the questionnaire informs applicants that “individuals who […] do not provide all the requested information may be denied a US visa”.
A proposal to request “social media identifiers” for travellers using the visa waiver program was put forward by US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) last year.
This came into force for some visa waiver travellers in December 2016.
The new questionnaire applies specifically to visa applicants not using the visa waiver program.
Evaluation of social media activity is increasingly common, though US employers in Maryland and Illinois were recently banned – thanks to state-level legislation – from asking job applicants for their social media logins.
The most powerful commercial broadband satellite ever built has just gone into orbit on an Ariane rocket.
ViaSat-2, which is to be stationed above the Americas, has a total throughput capacity of about 300 gigabits per second.
The spacecraft was part of a dual payload on the Ariane flight. It was joined by Eutelsat 172B, a UK/French-built platform to go over the Pacific.
Both satellites will be chasing the rampant market for wi-fi on aeroplanes.
Airlines are currently in a headlong rush to equip their fleets with connections that will allow passengers to use their mobile devices in mid-air.
More than 6,000 commercial aircraft worldwide were offering an onboard wi-fi service in 2016; it is expected more than 17,000 will be doing so by 2021.
In-flight internet has traditionally had a terrible reputation, but there is a feeling now that the latest technology really can give passengers a meaningful slice of bandwidth and at a competitive price.
The Ariane left the Kourou spaceport in French Guiana at 20:45 local time, Thursday (23:45 GMT), ejecting the satellites into their transfer orbits about half an hour later.
Both must now get themselves into their final positions. Noteworthy is the fact that ViaSat-2 and 172B will be using electric engines to do this.
These work by accelerating and expelling ions at high speed. The process provides less thrust than a standard chemical engine, but saves substantially on propellant mass.
That saving can be traded to get either a lower-priced launch ticket, or to pack even greater capacity into the satellite’s communications payload for no additional weight.
The US, Boeing-built ViaSat-2 uses a mix of chemical and electric propulsion, but Eutelsat’s platform is all-electric – the first such design to come from Europe’s biggest space manufacturer, Airbus.
ViaSat-2 will be providing broadband services to fixed customers across North America, Central America, the Caribbean, and a portion of northern South America.
But the satellite is also configured to service planes and ships, and in particular it is looking to grab a significant share of business out over the Atlantic.
The aviation sector currently is a key battleground for satellite operators; it is where they are seeing double-digit growth.
In the US, working with airlines such as JetBlue, ViaSat has already found success through its existing high-throughput ViaSat-1 spacecraft.
With the extra capacity on ViaSat-2, it aims to do better still.
“We think people want to use their devices in the air the way they do on the ground; that’s the bet we’ve made,” said ViaSat Chief Operating Officer Rick Baldridge.
“JetBlue delayed their in-flight wi-fi offering, waiting for us, and now they’re giving it away for free and we’re providing 12 megabits per second to every seat, including streaming video,” he told BBC News.
ViaSat-2’s “footprint” touches the western coast of Europe, but aeroplanes travelling further east will be handed seamlessly to a better-positioned Eutelsat spacecraft, which should enable passengers to stay connected all the way across to Turkey if needs be.
This is one of the benefits of the strategic alliance that the two satellite companies have formed. And in time this will see the pair operate a ViaSat-3 platform together over Europe. This spacecraft is being built to have a total throughput capacity of one terabit per second.
From its position very close to the International Date Line, Eutelsat’s 172B spacecraft is going to target – amongst other business – the flight corridors of the Asia-Pacific region. And it has some very smart British technology to do this in the form of a multi port amplifier.
This can flexibly switch power between the satellite’s 11 spot beams to make sure the available bandwidth is always focused where it is needed most – whether that be on the planes moving east-west from Japan to California, say, or when they go in the other direction as a cluster at a different time of day.
“To oversimplify, in-flight connectivity has mostly been restricted to the US. But now it is expanding into the Asia-Pacific region and it’s also coming to Europe,” said Rodolphe Belmer, Eutelsat’s chief executive officer.
“We see spontaneous demand from airlines and it’s booming. It’s true the technology hasn’t always delivered, but you will see with the introduction of very high throughput satellites in the next few years that we will be able to… bring a massive quantity of bandwidth onboard the plane, meaning you can stream Netflix in HD. That’s a game-changer.”
Euroconsult is one of the world’s leading analyst groups following the satellite industry. Its research confirms the rapid growth now taking place, and says this will only accelerate.
Euroconsult’s recent report on in-flight-connectivity (IFC) predicted nearly half of all commercial planes would be enabled by 2021, pushing revenues for the suppliers of onboard services from $1bn to $6.5bn inside 10 years. But Euroconsult’s CEO, Pacôme Revillon, said there will be winners and losers in this IFC race and this would likely be decided in the very near future.
“Going to 2020, approximately 50% of aircraft could have opted for their chosen connectivity solutions, and certainly all of the major airlines will have made that choice. By that stage the market share could decide who are the winners and losers, and we anticipate seeing some consolidation in this sector, with two to three companies coming to dominate the market,” he told BBC News.
The use of internet – or electronic – voting in elections is growing. But there are still plenty of concerns about reliability, safety and privacy. Will electing your government via the tap of a smartphone ever catch on?
Next month people in the UK will vote in a general election, heading to polling stations at schools, libraries and other public buildings to put a cross on a piece of paper.
In the digital era, it all seems quaintly archaic.
Bad weather can put people off going to vote, while others forget to register or might be away on holiday and not have arranged a postal vote.
Couldn’t technology remove some of these barriers to democratic involvement?
Estonia certainly thinks so.
About 14 countries have used some form of online voting, but Estonia was the first to introduce permanent national internet voting.
The small Baltic state began using online voting in 2005, and i-voting has served in eight elections. In the 2005 local elections, only 1.9% of voters cast their ballot online, rising to more than 30% in the most recent parliamentary election.
“I-voting has become massive, and statistically there is no such thing as a typical i-voter,” says Arne Koitmae, deputy head of Estonia’s Electoral Office.
“All voters, irrespective of gender, income, education, nationality and even computer skills, have the likelihood of becoming an i-voter,” he says.
Online voting is a good way to engage with younger voters, busy workers, and even Estonians living abroad, Mr Koitmae says. “In 2015, Estonians living in 116 different countries participated in the elections using internet voting.”
However, it does not seem to have increased the total number of people voting, he says. Rather, people have changed their preferred method of voting.
Since Estonia’s i-voting began, there have been no serious security issues, Mr Koitmae says. The technology and processes used are updated regularly based on technical advances and experiences from each election.
A crucial part of Estonia’s system is that online voting is linked to the country’s state-of-the-art electronic identity cards – carried by every citizen and resident.
Digital ID cards allow for the secure authentication of the owner online, and enables a digital signature to be linked to the account. Newer cards include an electronic copy of the owner’s fingerprints.
Estonian voter Igor Hobotov says the ID-linked i-voting system makes him feel a lot more secure when voting than a paper-based method. In fact, he says he might not vote at all if the online option was not available to him.
“I have e-voted multiple times, in local elections and parliament elections. Mostly I’ve been at home, but once I even voted on holiday from Cape Town. I prefer to e-vote because it is more convenient and more secure – we have a digital ID card with [strong] encryption, which is really, really hard to hack,” Mr Hobotov says.
“I can vote without any hassle, just sat at the computer. I would probably never vote if I had to go somewhere to do it.”
Australia’s state of New South Wales allows voters with impaired vision, other disabilities, those in rural areas, and those not present in the state on election day to vote online or via telephone in state general elections.
A few municipalities in Canada allow for online voting in municipal elections, but the government has specifically decided against it for federal elections.
Norway tested i-voting in parliamentary elections in 2011 and 2013, but decided to discontinue online voting due to political disagreement and voters’ concerns.
And France previously allowed citizens living abroad to cast their vote online in legislative elections, but has disallowed this for the upcoming June legislative elections amid cyber-security concerns.
Would Estonia-style i-voting work in the UK?
Recently, a special report by the Digital Democracy Commission recommended that by 2020, secure online voting should be an option for all voters.
UK voter Matthew Burton says he definitely wouldn’t switch the paper and pen vote for an online system.
“Voting is an important activity, and something people have died for and continue to die for. It should be more important than pressing a button on a smartphone on your way to work or when you’re out with friends,” he says.
Not only could i-voting trivialise the process, he says, there may also be security concerns – not just over voter fraud, but also ballot secrecy. Would some people be scared to vote knowing it might not be 100% secret, he wonders.
Stephen Schneider, professor in security for the department of computer science at the University of Surrey, says the success of Estonia’s system lies in the fact it was built from the ground up, supported by a solid infrastructure including the digital identification system.
“Their digital ID cards underpin the whole thing,” Prof Schneider says. “Without it, it would be like building [a voting system] on sand.”
To make i-voting work in the UK, several changes would be needed, including introducing electronic ID cards.
The technical ability for digital identification is certainly already here. One company is even trialling smartphone-based selfies for voter authentication.
The real risk
However, Prof Schneider says the necessary changes pose more of a societal challenge, as many people are uncomfortable with registering personal data, such as with ID cards.
Prof Schneider says the main security threat to online voting would be from malware on personal computers, which could potentially change votes cast via the internet.
Similarly, the use of internet-enabled voting machines in polling stations is “not really very secure”, he says. Many older machines, some used in the US, are “more easy to subvert”.
However, security software company Symantec says individual voters are not at any real risk, and it has not seen a single incident of external attackers interfering with voters.
Symantec believes large-scale attackers – including state-sponsored hackers – prefer to target political systems more generally, for example, the cyber-attack on the US Democratic Party in 2016.
“State-sponsored attack groups are not interested in affecting individual voters. What they are interested in is affecting the outcome of these election events,” Dick O’Brien, threat researcher at Symantec says.
Politicians and political parties are the “low-hanging fruit” for attackers, he says, because of the often chaotic nature of communications within these organisations.
And with a number of elections coming up across Europe, he says, it is not the individual voter who must remain vigilant, but politicians and political parties.
British Airways passengers are facing a third day of disruption at Heathrow as the airline deals with the impact of a worldwide computer system crash.
BA says it aims to operate a full long-haul schedule and a “high proportion” of short-haul services after the outage caused by a power failure.
It says passengers should check the status of flights before travelling.
Cancellations and delays affected thousands of passengers at both Heathrow and Gatwick on Saturday.
All flights operated from Gatwick on Sunday but more than a third of services from Heathrow – mostly to short-haul destinations – were cancelled.
In a statement, BA said its IT systems were moving “closer to full operational capacity”.
“We continue to make good progress in rebuilding our operation, following Saturday’s major IT systems failure which severely affected our operations worldwide,” it added.
“At Heathrow, we have operated virtually all our scheduled long-haul flights, though the knock-on effects of Saturday’s disruption resulted in a reduced short-haul programme.
“We apologise again to customers for the frustration and inconvenience they are experiencing and thank them for their continued patience.”
BA is liable to reimburse thousands of passengers for refreshments and hotel expenses, and travel industry commentators have suggested the cost to the company – part of Europe’s largest airline group IAG – could run in to tens of millions of pounds.
Customers displaced by flight cancellations can claim up to £200 a day for a room (based on two people sharing), £50 for transport between the hotel and airport, and £25 a day per adult for meals and refreshments.
On Saturday night, travellers spent the night sleeping on terminal floors at Heathrow on yoga mats provided by BA.
The disruption continued into Sunday, with queues building up as passengers tried to rebook flights. Conference rooms at the airport were opened to provide somewhere more comfortable for passengers to rest.
BA said Heathrow was still expected to be congested on Monday and urged travellers not to go to the airport unless they had a confirmed booking for a flight that was operating.
It said passengers could get a full refund or rebook to travel up to the end of November but recommend they use its website.
Thousands of bags remain at Heathrow Airport, but BA has advised passengers not to return to collect them, saying they will be couriered to customers.
The airline said there was no evidence the computer failure was the result of a cyber attack. It denied claims by the GMB union that problem could be linked to the company outsourcing its IT work.
Gatwick Airport said it was continuing to advise customers travelling with British Airways to check the status of their flight with the airline before travelling to the airport.
EU flight delay rights
If your flight departed the European Union or was with a European airline, you might have rights under EU law to claim if the delay or cancellation was within the airline’s control
Short-haul flights: 250 euros for delays of more than three hours
Medium-haul flights: 400 euros for delays of more than three hours
Long-haul flights: 300 euros for delays of between three and four hours; and 600 euros for delays of more than four hours
If your flight’s delayed for two or more hours the airline must offer food and drink, access to phone calls and emails, and accommodation if you’re delayed overnight – including transfers between the airport and the hotel
A BA spokesman added: “We are continuing to work hard to restore all of our IT systems…
“We are extremely sorry for the huge disruption caused to customers throughout Saturday and understand how frustrating their experiences will have been.
“We are refunding or rebooking customers who suffered cancellations on to new services as quickly as possible and have also introduced more flexible rebooking policies for anyone due to travel on Sunday and Monday who no longer wishes to fly to/from Heathrow or Gatwick.”
Earlier, the airline said most long-haul flights due to land in London on Sunday were expected to arrive as normal.
The GMB union had suggested the failure could have been avoided, had the airline not outsourced its IT work.
BA denied the claim, saying: “We would never compromise the integrity and security of our IT systems”.
Aviation expert Julian Bray told the BBC the IT failure had an impact on planes taking off, as well as baggage systems, and staff access to computers.
“This is a very serious problem, they should have been able to switch to an alternative system – surely British Airways should be able to do this,” he said.
BA aircraft landing at Heathrow had also been unable to park as outbound aircraft could not vacate the gates, which resulted in passengers being stuck on aircraft.
Delays were also reported in Rome, Prague, Milan, Stockholm and Malaga due to the system failure, which coincided with a bank holiday weekend and the start of the half-term holiday for many people in the UK.
Some passengers reported having to leave Heathrow without their luggage on Saturday.
BA confirmed the IT failure had led to a “significant number” of bags being left at the airport. It urged passengers not to return to collect their luggage, saying it would be returned to them via courier free of charge.
EU flight delay rights
If your flight departed the European Union or was with a European airline, you might have rights under EU law to claim if the delay or cancellation was within the airline’s control
Short-haul flights: 250 euros for delays of more than three hours
Medium-haul flights: 400 euros for delays of more than three hours
Long-haul flights: 300 euros for delays of between three and four hours; and 600 euros for delays of more than four hours
If your flight’s delayed for two or more hours the airline must offer food and drink, access to phone calls and emails, and accommodation if you’re delayed overnight – including transfers between the airport and the hotel
BBC diplomatic correspondent James Landale said Mrs May had met the French president Emmanuel Macron at the summit and both agreed that the recent attacks in Manchester and Paris showed the need for greater cooperation.
Mrs May warned that fighters returning to their home countries from countries like Iraq and Syria posed a new terrorist threat and urged G7 members to work with “our partners in the region to step up returns and prosecutions of foreign fighters.
“This means improving intelligence sharing, evidence gathering and bolstering countries’ police and legal processes,” she said.
G7 members needed to be able to share data securely in order to track fighters as they cross borders and make decisions about whether to prosecute them, she said.
The PM also sought common ground on tackling online extremism as she chaired a counter-terrorism session at the summit in Italy, looking at how countries could work together to prevent online plotting of terrorist attacks and to stop the spread of extremist ideology.
The prime minister argued that, as IS militants lose ground in the Middle East, the threat was “evolving rather than disappearing” and that the industry had a “social responsibility” to do more to take down harmful content, arguing it had taken some action but had not gone far enough.
‘Lift the lid’
She wants an international forum to develop the means of intervening where danger is detected, and for companies to develop tools which automatically identify and remove harmful material based on what it contains and who posted it.
French President Emmanuel Macron vowed France’s total support for Britain’s fight against terrorism as he met Mrs May at the summit.
“We will be here to cooperate and do everything we can in order to increase this cooperation at the European level, in order to do more from a bilateral point of view against terrorism,” he told her, in their first formal meeting since he took office.
Security minister Ben Wallace told BBC Radio 4’s Today programme that the use of online communications was “one of the biggest challenges” in the fight against terrorism, with encryption making it “almost impossible for us to actually lift the lid on these people”.
“And the scale of it is not just the UK, it is across the whole of Europe, across the world.”
He said the giant American tech companies like Facebook and Google could be doing more.
“We are determined to not let these people off the hook with the responsibility they have in broadcasting some horrendous [material], not only manuals about how to make bombs, but also grooming materials,” he said.
“We all think they could all do more… we need to have the tools to make them, where we need to, remove material quicker.”
Google said it was committed to creating an international forum designed to tackle extreme content online, to make sure “terrorists do not have a voice online”.
“We employ thousands of people and invest hundreds of millions of pounds to fight abuse on our platforms, and will continue investing and adapting to ensure we are part of the solution to addressing these challenges,” it added.
Google is planning to track billions of credit and debit card sales to compare online ad clicks with money spent offline.
The company will allow advertisers to see whether online ad campaigns generate offline sales.
Announcing the service, Google said that it captures around 70% of credit and debit card transactions in the US.
Critics said it represented another blow to privacy.
Google also announced a separate monitoring product in a blogpost, saying: “For the first time, Google Attribution makes it possible for every marketer to measure the impact of their marketing across devices and cross-channel – all in one place.”
The company has vast amounts of data on net users, from services such as AdWords, Google Analytics and DoubleClick Search which combine details about the ads displayed on devices with what has been searched for in Google.
Google can also collect location information from phones, allowing it to work out when a user has seen an ad, and whether they have searched for the product advertised and gone to an offline shop to buy it.
It introduced store visit measurements back in 2014, using the location data on mobiles to track when people visited a store.
“In under three years, advertisers globally have measured over five billion store visits,” it said.
It added that Google’s “third-party partnerships” already capture approximately 70% of credit and debit card transactions in the US, but did not reveal who the partners were or how information was captured.
Google will not have access to the details about what individuals spend – instead they learn the value of all purchases in a certain time period.
“While we developed the concept for this product years ago, it required years of effort to develop a solution that could meet our stringent user privacy requirements,” a spokesman said.
“To accomplish this, we developed a new, custom encryption technology that ensures users’ data remains private, secure, and anonymous.”
“What’s really fascinating to me is that as the companies become increasingly intrusive in terms of their data collection, they also become more secretive,” Marc Rotenberg, executive director of the Electronic Privacy Information Center told the Washington Post.
The measurement of store sales will be aggregated and anonymised and no location data will be shared with advertisers.
Users can opt out of the service by going to their ads setting page and unchecking the box that says: “Also use Google Account activity and information to personalise ads on these websites and apps and store that data in your Google Account”.
Users can also disable personalisation for all Google ads. And they can pause or delete their location history.
The service is currently limited to the US – and would likely hit barriers if it was rolled out in Europe, privacy campaigners say.
The upcoming General Data Protection Regulation aims to tighten the ways online firms use and collect data and will require online firms to get explicit consent from consumers about data use.
“The one thing people regularly state as ‘creepy’ online is when an advert follows them around the internet. These plans appear to extend ‘creepy’ into the physical world,” said Renate Samson from Big Brother Watch.
“If people want to avoid having their shopping habits monitored on the high street by Google, by shops or by banks they should restrict the amount of data they hand over.
“Companies track and monitor in order to advertise to us. If we don’t want them to do that, take control; don’t give your email address for a digital receipt, check the terms and conditions, avoid using loyalty cards and where possible choose to pay with cash.”
As the internet becomes more widespread in Cuba, online start-ups are emerging. But the problems many of the companies hope to address are also a reminder of how far the island has to go.
Bernardo Romero Gonzalez, a 33-year-old software engineer from Cuba, launched his new business this month: a website where people can order island-made products such as soap, bouquets of flowers and cakes for home delivery.
“It’s like Amazon for Cuba, but with a difference,” he told an audience of New York techies at a conference this month.
The summary was a classic start-up pitch, but it also underscored the obstacles when it comes to starting an online business in the Caribbean country.
Mr Gonzalez is counting on buyers from the Cuban diaspora, which already plays a role in the economy, sending money and other products to the island.
But the infrastructure doesn’t exist for domestic buyers to sustain the market.
Internet access among Cuba’s 11.2 million people is growing.
Between 2013 and 2015, the share of the Cuban population using the internet jumped from about a quarter to more than 35%, according to estimates from the International Telecommunications Union.
The growing market has helped draw the attention of internet giants, such as Airbnb, Netflix and Google, which installed servers on the island and started hosting data there last month.
The rise is also fuelling activity among local entrepreneurs, who are launching domestic versions of sites such as the crowd-review business directory Yelp.
But there’s a long way to go.
‘Third world conditions’
Less than 6% of Cuban households had internet access at home in 2015, one of the lowest rates in the western hemisphere, according to the ITU. (In the UK, that figure tops 91%.)
Wi-fi hotspots in parks and other public places operated by the state-run telecom company remain the primary way to log on.
Service at the hotspots is often slow, expensive and selective, with the government restricting access to the full range of internet sites.
The constraints are shaping the emerging Cuban start-ups.
At this month’s TechCrunch conference in New York, Mr Gonzalez shared a stage with Kewelta, a firm focusing on advertising within decentralised online and offline networks, and Knales, which provides updates on weather, news and other events via text messages and phone calls.
Knales co-founder Diana Elianne Benitez Perera told the audience that “Cubans are disrupters by definition. We always find the way to have first world conditions with third world conditions.”
‘Change in the air’
The government in recent years has taken some steps to boost internet access, increasing wi-fi hotspots in parks and other places, lowering prices and experimenting with home installations.
The measures come amid broader economic changes in Cuba, after the Castro regime loosened rules for private enterprise and the Obama administration eased the US embargo, unleashing large numbers of US travellers.
The Cuba Emprende Foundation started working with the Catholic Church in Cuba about five years ago as the reforms started, funding four-week courses in entrepreneurship from which more than 3,000 people have graduated.
The Foundation helped organise the 10x10KCuba start-up competition in which both Diana and Bernardo participated last year, that led to the invitation to the Tech Crunch conference in New York in May.
“There’s change in the air,” says Anna Maria Alejo, one of the people who helped organise the TechCrunch panel and helped raise about $10,000 (£7,700) to pay for eight entrepreneurs to attend the conference.
“We’re not exactly sure where things will go, but there’s a lot of optimism among these young people,” she says.
Cuba has a relatively high number of well-trained software engineers, especially for a country with its size and degree of internet access, said Kirk Laughlin, managing director of NearShore Americas.
The media advisory company published a report in 2015 that highlighted the island’s potential as a hub for cheap IT labour.
But Mr Laughlin says he’s been disappointed by how slowly the Cuban government has moved to improve the broadband network, especially given interest from international companies and numbers of educated Cubans opting to leave and take their chances elsewhere.
“There is such an opportunity to leapfrog ahead and really light up the island with really robust broadband. That is just not happening,” he says.
“When it comes to online start-ups, there’s a lot of workarounds”.
“That’s great that people have the ingenuity and creativity and in some ways we should applaud that,” he says.
“But it’s still a long way to go to get into the league that Cuba has great qualifications to participate in.”
‘The companies are waiting’
Some say the changes could accelerate after Raul Castro retires next year.
In speeches, Mr Castro’s presumed successor, vice president Miguel Diaz-Canel, has indicated a more open attitude, said Larry Press, a professor emeritus at California State University Dominguez Hills, who has researched the internet in the developing world and writes a blog on Cuba.
“This is the right way to go,” said Mr Pai ahead of the vote on Thursday.
In a statement, the FCC said it expected its proposed changes to “substantially benefit consumers and the marketplace”. It added that, before the rules were changed in 2015, they helped to preserve a “flourishing free and open internet for almost 20 years”.
The vote by the FCC commissioners is the first stage in the process of dismantling the net neutrality regulations.
The agency is now inviting public comment on whether it should indeed dismantle the rules. Americans have until mid-August to share their views with the FCC.
This call for comments is likely to attract a huge number of responses. Prior to the vote, more than 1 million statements supporting net neutrality were filed on the FCC site.
Many people responded to a call from comedian and commentator John Oliver to make their feelings known.
Separately, some protestors also used software bots to repeatedly file statements on the site.
Many fear that once the equal access rules go, ISPs will start blocking and throttling some data while letting other packets travel on “fast lanes” because firms have paid more to reach customers quicker.
US ISPs such as Comcast, Charter Communications and Altice NV have pledged in public statements to keep data flowing freely.
Despite this public pledge Comcast, along with Verizon and AT&T, opposed the original 2015 rule change saying it dented their enthusiasm for improving US broadband.
Facebook, and Google’s parent company Alphabet as well as many other net firms have backed the open net rules saying equal access was important for all.
Mobile phone users will be able to switch operators by sending a text to the provider they want to leave, under plans drawn up by the regulator.
Ofcom said customers could avoid an awkward and long call to their operator and instead send a text. In turn, they will be sent switching codes.
The proposal means Ofcom’s previously preferred option – a more simple one-stage process – is being dropped.
That system was more expensive and could have raised bills, it said.
The change of preferred plan marks a victory for mobile operators who would have faced higher costs under the alternative system. Ofcom said its research suggested customers would also prefer the new planned system.
At present, anyone who wishes to switch to a different mobile provider must contact their current supplier to tell them they are leaving.
Ofcom research suggests that, of those who have switched, some 38% have been hit by one major problem during the process. One in five of them temporarily lost their service, while one in 10 had difficulties contacting their current supplier or keeping their phone number.
Under previous plans, Ofcom wanted responsibility for the switch being placed entirely in the hands of the new provider. That would mean one call to a new provider by the customer.
The regulator has now concluded that such a system would be twice as expensive as its newly-preferred option of texting to switch.
They would text, then receive a text back, which includes a unique code to pass on to their new provider who could arrange the switch within one working day. Customers would be able to follow this process whether they were taking their mobile number with them or not.
Under the proposed rules, mobile providers would be banned from charging for notice periods running after the switch date. That would mean customers would no longer have to pay for their old and new service at the same time after they have switched.
A final decision will be made in the autumn.
Latest figures published last year showed that there were an estimated 47 million mobile phone contracts in the UK, and approximately 5.9 million people had never switched provider at all, nor considered switching in the previous year.
Online companies could face fines or prosecution if they fail to remove illegal content, under Conservative plans for stricter internet regulation.
The party has also proposed an industry-wide levy, dubbed a “Twitter tax”, to fund “preventative activity to counter internet harms”.
Labour said it had “pressed for tough new codes” in the past but the government had “categorically refused”.
The Liberal Democrats said more needed to be done “to find a real solution”.
The Conservatives said the levy, proposed in their election manifesto, would use the same model as that used in the gambling industry, where companies voluntarily contribute to the charity GambleAware to help pay for education, research, and treating gambling addiction.
All social media and communications service providers would be given a set period to come up with plans to fund and promote efforts “to counter internet harms”.
If they failed to do so, the government would have the power to impose an industry-wide toll.
The Conservatives say the exact details, including how long the industry will be given to comply and the size of the levy, will be consulted upon.
A Labour spokesman said: “If the Tories are planning to levy a new tax on social media companies, they need to set out how it will work, who it will affect and what it will raise.
“Labour has pushed for a code of practice about the responsibilities of social media companies to protect children and young people from abuse and bullying.”
The Conservatives have also pledged to introduce “a sanctions regime” that would give regulators “the ability to fine or prosecute those companies that fail in their legal duties, and to order the removal of content where it clearly breaches UK law”.
Social media platforms and internet service providers would have clearer responsibilities regarding the reporting and removal of harmful material, including bullying, inappropriate or illegal content, and would have to take down material.
“It is certainly bold of the Conservatives to boast that they can protect people on the internet,” Liberal Democrat home affairs spokesman Alistair Carmichael said.
“Government and technology companies must do more to find a real solution to problematic content online.”
And Labour’s digital economy spokeswoman Louise Haigh said: “The Home Office were crystal clear they did not want to legislate and that they believed the voluntary framework was sufficient.
“The fact is that in government the Tories have been too afraid to stand up to the social media giants and keep the public safe from illegal and extremist content.”
Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg has posted a video showing the moment he found out he got into Harvard, as filmed by his dad, Edward, about 15 years ago.
Zuckerberg actually dropped out to found what is now the biggest social network on the planet – but he’s due to pick up an honorary degree at Harvard next week.
He also wrote on his profile: “Before I went to college, my mom bet me I’d drop out and my younger sister bet me she’d finish college before me. I bet them I’d get a degree. Now I suppose the cycle is complete.”
Electronic signature service provider DocuSign has admitted customer emails were accessed in a data breach.
The addresses were then targeted in a series of phishing emails from “a malicious third party”.
The messages invited recipients to click on a link to a Microsoft Word document containing malware.
DocuSign says that no other information was accessed in the incident, and the e-signature service remained secure.
“No names, physical addresses, passwords, social security numbers, credit card data or other information was accessed,” the company said in a statement.
“DocuSign’s core e-signature service, envelopes and customer documents and data remain secure.”
The company has advised people to delete any suspicious messages immediately.
The breach came to light when the company noticed an increase in phishing emails sent to some of their account holders last week.
According to a statement published on DocuSign’s website, “a malicious third party gained temporary access to a separate, non-core system that allows us to communicate service-related announcements to users via email”.
The emails included the DocuSign branding and appeared to come from addresses ending “docus.com”, a lookalike domain.
The subject line referred to either a wire transfer or an accounting invoice, saying: “Document Ready for Signature”.
A full copy of the email has been published on the TechHelpList website, which reported that the malware contained in the attachment could be used to steal passwords and banking credentials.
“Phishing is almost the default way of tricking people into giving away that information,” Keith Martin, professor of information security at Royal Holloway, University of London, told the BBC.
“Where it’s targeting a bank, for example, the senders are going to use headers and language that’ll make customers believe it’s their bank.
“With a generic phishing trawl, the message will go out and the more people who click the better – it’s literally like fishing, hoping to get some bites, chucking a message out there speculatively.
“With most, you don’t need a very high success rate to make money.”
A prototype computer with 160TB of memory has been unveiled by Hewlett Packard Enterprises.
Designed to work on big data, it could analyse the equivalent of 160 million books at the same time, HPE said.
The device, called The Machine, had a Linux-based operating system and prioritised memory rather than processing power, the company said.
HPE said its Memory Driven Computing research project could eventually lead to a “near-limitless” memory pool.
“The secrets to the next great scientific breakthrough, industry-changing innovation or life-altering technology hide in plain sight behind the mountains of data we create every day,” said HPE boss Meg Whitman.
“To realise this promise, we can’t rely on the technologies of the past, we need a computer built for the big data era.”
Prof Les Carr, of the University of Southampton, told the BBC The Machine would be fast but big data faced other challenges.
“The ultimate way to speed things up is to make sure you have all the data present in your computer as close to the processing as possible so this is a different way of trying to speed things up,” he said.
“However, we need to make our processing… not just faster but more insightful and business relevant.”
“There are many areas in life where quicker is not necessarily better.”
The latest health and fitness trend involves taking a DNA test to find out more about how our bodies respond to different types of food and exercise. But how accurate and effective are these kits?
Fitness fanatic Mandy Mayer, 56, exercised several times a week but felt like she’d hit a plateau.
Her personal trainer suggested she try a DNAFit test, which tests the body’s genetic response to key foods and exercise.
“I jumped at the chance,” she says. “I thought I’d love to have that kind of knowledge.”
After sending off a swab of her saliva, she received a report on her fitness and diet in January. She was impressed.
“I was like ‘wow’. They told me I don’t tolerate caffeine and refined foods very well, and I respond better to endurance training than anything else.”
Three months later and she has dropped from a size 12 to a size 10 and lost several kilos. She attributes her leaner figure to understanding more about her genetic code.
“Without a shadow of a doubt it was down to the test,” says Mandy, who lives in Market Harborough, Leicestershire.
“It’s made me follow the right training and make little changes to my diet.”
A growing number of start-ups, such as 23andMe, FitnessGenes, UBiome, DNAFit, Orig3n and Habit, are moving into this space, promising that mail-order genetic tests can change your life for the better.
Some researchers believe the global market for such kits could be worth more than $10bn (£7.7bn) by 2022.
But how do they work and how reliable are they?
Avi Lasarow, chief executive of DNAFit, explains that everything about who we are is the unique combination of what we are born with – our genetics – and how we live – our environment.
“The biggest ‘environment’ factor that we can control in our day-to-day lives is our diet,” he says, “so by understanding more about the static part, the genetics, we can better tweak the bit in our control.”
He gives the example of the CYP1A2 gene, which controls around 95% of caffeine metabolism.
“Some people are fast metabolisers, some are slow, depending on their variants of this gene. Once you know this, however, you can make a better informed decision on your caffeine intake than you could without your genetic data.”
Robin Smith, chief executive of Orig3n, which offers a range of health and wellness DNA tests costing from $29 to $149, says the results can help people make educated choices about what works for their bodies.
“If a person’s DNA suggests that she is more likely to be deficient in B vitamins, she can pay attention to that in her daily life.
“Knowing what your DNA says about your body’s food sensitivities, food breakdown, hunger, weight, vitamins, allows you to become a more informed consumer.
“You can become smarter about what you choose to eat, and smarter about what supplements you choose to buy, saving you time, energy, and money while getting the results you want faster.”
So much for the sales pitch, but some genetic experts are concerned that the efficacy of such kits may be overhyped.
“I’m not against people being able to access genetic information about themselves if they wish to do so, provided the test results and limitations are clearly explained,” says Dr Jess Buxton, a geneticist at University College London.
“However, I do think that the amount of useful information that personalised health tests can offer is very limited at present because we still know very little about the effect of most SNPs [genetic variations called single nucleotide polymorphisms] and other types of genetic variation on a person’s health.”
While there are a few conditions, such as lactose intolerance, for which the genetic variations are very clear and well understood, the same cannot be said for most other conditions, she says.
“These [genetic variations] interact with each other and with non-genetic factors in ways that we don’t fully understand, so it’s impossible to make accurate predictions based on information about just a few of the gene variants involved, as many of these tests do.”
That said, some studies do suggest that this kind of analysis might work. For example, the University of Trieste and the IRCCS Burlo Garofolo Institute for Maternal and Child Health in Italy found that those following diet based on genetic analysis lost 33% more weight than a controlled group.
Some start-ups are not just relying on a person’s genetic make-up to make their diet and exercise recommendations.
San Francisco-based Habit’s home kit includes a series of DNA samples, blood tests and a shake to drink so that the company can measure how your body metabolises fats, carbohydrates and proteins.
“Unlike other at-home tests that measure DNA alone, Habit looks at how the entire body works together,” explains founder and chief executive Neil Grimmer.
Habit, he says, measures more than 60 nutrition-related blood and genetic biomarkers, biometrics and lifestyle choices, to make personalised nutrition recommendations for each individual.
“Personalised recommendations should be based on your entire biology, not just your DNA,” says Mr Grimmer.
One early adopter is Thierry Attias, president of Momentum Sports Group, a firm managing the UnitedHealthcare Pro Cycling team.
“Even though I cycle a few times a week, I carry an extra couple of pounds and I was curious to learn more about myself,” says Mr Attias, who lives in Oakland, California.
He discovered that he’s caffeine sensitive, his diet needs to include more plant-based food, and his body is slow at processing fats.
While Habit was still in testing phase, he opted to receive personalised ready-to-eat meals from the company for three days.
“An interesting thing happened,” he enthuses. “I lost four pounds in a few days. I learnt portion size and how much more veg I needed in a serving.”
In two months he has lost about 11 pounds (5kg), he says.
But do we really need a testing kit to tell as to eat more vegetables and fewer fats as part of a healthy balanced diet – advice that has been around for decades?
Cyber-attacks that have hit 150 countries since Friday should be treated by governments around the world as a “wake-up call”, Microsoft says.
The computing giant said software vulnerabilities hoarded by governments have caused “widespread damage”.
The latest virus exploits a flaw in Microsoft Windows first identified by US intelligence.
There are fears of further “ransomware” attacks as people return to work on Monday.
Many firms have had experts work over the weekend to prevent new infections. The virus took control of users’ files, demanding payments to restore access.
The spread of the virus slowed over the weekend but the respite might only be brief, experts have warned. More than 200,000 computers have been affected so far.
A statement released by Microsoft on Sunday criticised the way governments store up information about security flaws in computer systems.
“We have seen vulnerabilities stored by the CIA show up on WikiLeaks, and now this vulnerability stolen from the NSA has affected customers around the world.
“An equivalent scenario with conventional weapons would be the US military having some of its Tomahawk missiles stolen.”
It added: “The governments of the world should treat this attack as a wake-up call.”
Microsoft said it had released a Windows security update in March to tackle the problem involved in the latest attack, but many users were yet to run it.
“As cybercriminals become more sophisticated, there is simply no way for customers to protect themselves against threats unless they update their systems,” the company said.
Meanwhile Europol’s chief told the BBC that that the ransomware was designed to allow “infection of one computer to quickly spread across the networks”, adding: “That’s why we’re seeing these numbers increasing all the time.”
Although a temporary fix earlier slowed the infection rate, the attackers had now released a new version of the virus, he said.
A UK security researcher known as “MalwareTech”, who helped to limit the ransomware attack, predicted “another one coming… quite likely on Monday”.
MalwareTech, who wants to remain anonymous, was hailed as an “accidental hero” after registering a domain name to track the spread of the virus, which actually ended up halting it.
Becky Pinkard, from Digital Shadows, a UK-based cyber-security firm, told AFP news agency that it would be easy for the initial attackers or “copy-cat authors” to change the virus code so it is difficult to guard against.
“Even if a fresh attack does not materialise on Monday, we should expect it soon afterwards,” she said.
In England, 48 National Health Service (NHS) trusts reported problems at hospitals, doctor surgeries or pharmacies, and 13 NHS organisations in Scotland were also affected.
Other organisations targeted worldwide included Germany’s rail network Deutsche Bahn, Spanish telecommunications operator Telefonica, French carmaker Renault, US logistics giant FedEx and Russia’s Interior Ministry.
Hospitals and doctors’ surgeries were forced to turn away patients and cancel appointments One NHS worker told the BBC that patients would “almost certainly suffer and die” as a result.
Some reports said Russia had seen more infections than any other single country. Russia’s interior ministry said it had “localised the virus” following an “attack on personal computers using Windows operating system”.
A number of Spanish firms – including telecoms giant Telefonica, power firm Iberdrola and utility provider Gas Natural – suffered from the outbreak. There were reports that staff at the firms were told to turn off their computers.
Portugal Telecom, delivery company FedEx, a Swedish local authority and Megafon, the second largest mobile phone network in Russia, also said they had been affected.
Who is behind the attack?
Some experts say the attack may be have been built to exploit a weakness in Microsoft systems that was identified by the NSA and given the name EternalBlue.
The NSA tools were then stolen by a group of hackers known as The Shadow Brokers, who then attempted to sell the encrypted cache in an online auction.
The hackers said they had published the password as a “protest” about US President Donald Trump.
At the time, some cyber-security experts said some of the malware was real, but old.
A patch for the vulnerability was released by Microsoft in March, but many systems may not have had the update installed.
Microsoft said on Friday its engineers had added detection and protection against WannaCrypt. The company was providing assistance to customers, it added.
How does the malware work?
Some security researchers have pointed out that the infections seem to be deployed via a worm – a program that spreads by itself between computers.
Unlike many other malicious programs, this one has the ability to move around a network by itself. Most others rely on humans to spread by tricking them into clicking on an attachment harbouring the attack code.
By contrast, once WannaCry is inside an organisation it will hunt down vulnerable machines and infect them too. This perhaps explains why its impact is so public – because large numbers of machines at each victim organisation are being compromised.
What was the US Air Force’s X-37B doing during its almost two years in orbit?
The X-37B Orbital Test Vehicle (OTV-4), an unmanned, reusable space plane operated by the US Air Force, has landed at Nasa’s Kennedy Space Centre in Florida after two years in orbit.
US Air Force officials confirmed the craft’s landing and said they were “excited about the data gathered”.
According to a press release, the programme is designed to experiment on and develop reusable space vehicles.
But what the OTV-4 has been doing for the last 24 months isn’t clear.
“The hard work of the X-37B OTV team and the 45th Space Wing successfully demonstrated the flexibility and resolve necessary to continue the nation’s advancement in space,” said Randy Walden, the director of the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office.
“The ability to land, refurbish, and launch from the same location further enhances the OTV’s ability to rapidly integrate and qualify new space technologies.”
Because the X-37B started life as a Nasa programme, the Air Force is in a position to talk openly about the craft’s design but its precise purpose remains classified.
Back in 2010, when the vehicle was first launched, Gary Payton, the Air Force’s deputy undersecretary for space programmes, tried to calm worries about the potential weaponisation of space.
“I don’t know how this could be called weaponisation of space. It’s just an updated version of the space shuttle type of activities in space,” he said.
“We, the Air Force, have a suite of military missions in space and this new vehicle could potentially help us do those missions better.”
Given that its landing on Sunday caused a sonic boom, waking residents in central Florida, it would be hard for US Air Force officials to deny something had happened.
“Today marks an incredibly exciting day for the 45th Space Wing as we continue to break barriers,” said Brig Gen Wayne Monteith, the 45th SW commander.
“Our team has been preparing for this event for several years, and I am extremely proud to see our hard work and dedication culminate in today’s safe and successful landing of the X-37B.”
Donkey Kong and Pokemon Red and Green have been inducted into the World Video Game Hall of Fame.
Halo: Combat Evolved and Street Fighter II were also honoured with places in the permanent exhibition at The Strong Museum of Play in Rochester, New York.
They join titles such as Sonic the Hedgehog, The Sims, Doom, Pong and World of Warcraft.
Tomb Raider, Resident Evil and Microsoft’s Solitaire were nominated but failed to make the final list.
The hall of fame was established in 2015, covering games played in an arcade, on a console, computer, handheld device or mobile phone.
The games are chosen for their popularity, longevity and their influence on gaming, popular culture and society.
Anyone can nominate a game, but the final selection is made on the advice of a panel of journalists, academics and gaming experts.
This year’s winners were chosen from a list of 12 finalists which also included Final Fantasy VII and Wii Sports.
Following its release in 1981, an estimated 132,000 Donkey Kong arcade game cabinets were sold around the world – introducing us to an Italian plumber called Mario.
“Without Donkey Kong there would be no Super Mario Bros,” said Jon-Paul Dyson, director of The Strong’s International Center for the History of Electronic Games (ICHEG).
The original Pokemon game, released for the Nintendo Game Boy in 1996, was nominated in 2016 but failed to make that year’s final selection.
Since then, however, the franchise has received a boost in popularity and gained a new generation of fans with the launch of Pokemon Go.
“Two decades after its inception and with the introduction of Pokemon Go, ‘Poke-mania’ shows little sign of fading,” explained The Strong’s associate curator, Shannon Symonds.
Capcom’s Street Fighter II allowed players to battle human opponents, “instantly attracting spectators and generating fierce tournament play”, said Jeremy Saucier, assistant director of ICHIEG.
He added that the “communal style of game play reinvigorated the arcade industry in the 1990s”.
When Microsoft launched the Xbox in 2001, more than half of the consoles sold came with Halo: Combat Evolved.
The first-person multi-player game sold more than six million copies and has been followed up with sequels and spin-offs including novels and comics.
Ms Symonds said the game was key in showing that consoles could be “just as effective, if not better, than a PC” for high-precision games, as well as “one of the strongest multiplayer experiences of its time”.
With the addition of this year’s four winners, the World Video Games Hall of Fame now has 16 permanent exhibits.
Its first entrants were Doom, Pong, Pac-Man, Super Mario Bros, Tetris and World of Warcraft.
In 2016, another six games – Space Invaders, Sonic the Hedgehog, The Legend of Zelda, The Oregon Trail, Grand Theft Auto III and The Sims – were honoured.
Retailer Debenhams has said that up to 26,000 customers of its Flowers website have had their personal data compromised following a cyber-attack.
Payment details, names and addresses were potentially taken during the incident, which targeted Ecomnova, a third party e-commerce company.
Debenhams said it has contacted customers whose data was accessed.
Customers of Debenhams.com, a separate website, have not been affected, the company added.
The attack took place between 24 February and 11 April and the Debenhams Flowers website is currently offline.
“Our communication to affected customers includes detailing steps that we have taken and steps that those customers should take,” Debenhams said in a statement.
A spokeswoman told the BBC that emails have been sent to just under 26,000 customers and that this will be followed up with a letter in the post.
“As soon as we were informed that there had been a cyber-attack, we suspended the Debenhams Flowers website and commenced a full investigation,” said Debenhams chief executive Sergio Bucher in a statement.
“We are very sorry that customers have been affected by this incident and we are doing everything we can to provide advice to affected customers and reduce their risk.”
The Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) has been informed of the incident.
A bionic hand that “sees” objects and instantly decides what kind of grip to adopt has been developed by scientists.
A computer uses a camera to assess an object’s shape and size to then trigger the correct movement to pick it up.
The technology was developed at Newcastle University and has been trialled by a small number of amputees.
Dr Kianoush Nazarpour, a senior lecturer in biomedical engineering at the university, said the bionic hand can “respond automatically”.
The device could spark a new generation of prosthetic limbs giving the wearer the ability to grip objects without the use of their brain, researchers say.
Dr Nazarpour said: “Prosthetic limbs have changed very little in the past 100 years.
“Responsiveness has been one of the main barriers to artificial limbs.
“For many amputees the reference point is their healthy arm or leg so prosthetics seem slow and cumbersome in comparison.
“Now, for the first time in a century, we have developed an ‘intuitive’ hand that can react without thinking.”
The team, whose work is reported in the Journal of Neural Engineering, programmed the hand to react within milliseconds and perform four different “grasps” suitable for picking up a cup, holding a TV controller, and gripping objects with a thumb and two fingers or a pinched thumb and first finger.
Twitter is working with media firm Bloomberg to create a 24-hour rolling news channel for the messaging service.
The live video stream will be made up of original programming as well as feeds from Bloomberg bureaus.
The deal builds on the live-streaming deals Twitter has done with others that spreads content via the social network.
The deal could also help Twitter compete more with giants such as Google and Facebook, which already make a lot of money from video ads.
Bloomberg’s chief executive Justin Smith said the video stream would be “broader in focus” than its existing output.
He said it would build on the habits of many Twitter users who send tweets as they watch live events.
“Viewers have already embraced a multi-stream experience with live events and marrying those experiences seemed like a very powerful thing to offer to consumers,” he told the Wall Street Journal.
Twitter’s chief operating officer Anthony Noto said the stream would be designed for mobile audiences so people can focus on it when they see something interesting to them.
The deal builds on other efforts Twitter has made to beef up the live video streaming available via its service. In the first three months of 2017, Twitter broadcast about 800 hours of live video. Many of those streams were connected to specific events.
Neither Twitter nor Bloomberg would be drawn on the terms of the deal. The ad-supported, 24-hour service is due to be working by the autumn.
The Nomx personal email server costs from $199 – $399 (£155 – £310) and its publicity material claims it is designed to handle email communications for consumers.
It says that using a dedicated personal server, users can help to stop messages being copied and hacked as they travel to their destination across the net.
BBC Click asked security researcher Scott Helme and computer security expert Prof Alan Woodward, from the University of Surrey, to scrutinise Nomx. They were asked to assess whether it did let people send messages in a way that was secure against hacking and interception.
The investigation started by taking the device apart to find that it was built around a £30 Raspberry Pi computer. As the operating system for the Pi sits on a removable memory card, Mr Helme was able to download the device’s core code so he could examine it closely.
This allowed Mr Helme to run it as if he were the administrator for the device. He discovered that the software packages it used to handle mail were not proprietary and many were very old versions, five years old in one case, harbouring unpatched security bugs. Default passwords found in the code included “password” and “death”.
Mr Helme also found many problems with the web interface Nomx uses to administer the secure email service. This was vulnerable to several widely known and easy to execute attacks that, if exploited, would give attackers control over a target’s Nomx system.
He also found a way to create a hidden administrator’s account on the Nomx box that would allow any attacker to fully compromise the gadget.
In addition, Mr Helme found more than 10 other issues with the Nomx box that left him “horrified” by its approach to security.
The analysis was reviewed by Paul Moore – an experienced tester of secure hardware.
Mr Moore said the Nomx was an “overpriced and outdated mail server” and used one of the “most insecure PHP applications” he had ever encountered.
In an emailed response to Click, Mr Donaldson thanked Mr Helme and Prof Woodward for finding and sharing information about Nomx’s vulnerabilities.
Addressing the issue of old software, he said Nomx planned to let users choose which updates should be applied to their device.
“We will selectively allow users to pick and choose when that becomes available but today we’re not forcing any types of updates,” he said, adding that updates can introduce vulnerabilities.
“Updates actually cause a cascading effect and now you’re patching patches and that is not a good place to be in,” he told Click.
The default names and passwords found by Mr Helme were used to make it easy for customers to set up their device and they were encouraged to change it afterwards, he said.
Mr Helme said the set-up process for the Nomx was far from easy and at no point was he told to pick a new password.
Late on 27 April, Nomx published a strong defence of its product and disputed the way in which Mr Helme tested the device. Mr Donaldson said Mr Helme’s tests were unrealistic, as they involved actions no typical user would undertake.
Nomx said the threat posed by the attack detailed by Mr Helme was “non-existent for our users”.
Following weeks of correspondence with Mr Helme and the BBC Click Team, he said the firm no longer shipped versions that used the Raspberry Pi.
Instead, he said, future devices would be built around different chips that would also be able to encrypt messages as they travelled.
“The large cloud providers and email providers, like AOL, Yahoo, Gmail, Hotmail – they’ve already been proven that they are under attack millions of times daily,” he said. “Why we invented Nomx was for the security of keeping your data off those large cloud providers.
“To date, no Nomx accounts have been compromised.”
Hanley supplied data for hacking to another man and gave Allsopp the personal and financial details of a TalkTalk customer for the use in fraud.
Allsopp admitted supplying a customer’s details for fraud and as well as files for hacking.
Hanley, of Devonshire Drive, denied other charges of hacking into Nasa, the National Climatic Data Centre and another 23 websites including Spotify, Telstra, the RAC and The Eton Collection which were ordered to lie on file.
Allsopp, of Coronation Street, pleaded guilty at an earlier hearing.
Judge Michael Topolski QC ordered reports for both defendants and adjourned sentencing until 31 May.
A Thai man filmed himself killing his baby daughter on Facebook Live, before taking his own life, Thai police say.
The 21-year-old hanged his daughter, and then himself, at a deserted hotel in Phuket on Monday, reportedly after an argument with his wife.
Facebook sent condolences to the family for the “appalling” incident and said that the content had now been removed.
The company pledged a review of its processes after footage of a US killing stayed online for hours this month.
The footage of the Thai killing had also been available on video sharing website YouTube, but the company took it down after the BBC alerted it to its presence.
Social media anger
Relatives of the Thai man, Wuttisan Wongtalay, saw the distressing footage and alerted the police – but the authorities arrived too late to save him and his daughter.
In a statement, a Facebook spokesperson said: “This is an appalling incident and our hearts go out to the family of the victim. There is absolutely no place for content of this kind on Facebook and it has now been removed.”
Reuters said two videos were posted, at 16:50 (09:50 GMT) and 16:57 on Monday, and were taken down at about 17:00 on Tuesday, roughly 24 hours later. Facebook has yet to confirm the times to the BBC.
Thailand’s ministry of digital economy said it had contacted Facebook on Tuesday afternoon about removing the videos.
Ministry spokesman Somsak Khaosuwan told Reuters: “We will not be able to press charges against Facebook, because Facebook is the service provider and they acted according to their protocol when we sent our request. They co-operated very well.”
YouTube said it had taken down the video within 15 minutes of being told of its presence by the BBC.
Its statement read: “YouTube has clear policies that outline what’s acceptable to post and we quickly remove videos that break our rules when they’re flagged.”
Shortly before the BBC alerted YouTube, the video was showing 2,351 views.
Thai social media users reacted with anger to the footage, while offering condolences to the family of the girl, BBC Thai editor Nopporn Wong-Anan says.
Devastated relatives of the child, including the mother, picked up the body of the girl and her father from hospital on Tuesday.
Following the US killing, Facebook said it was “constantly exploring ways that new technologies can help us make sure Facebook is a safe environment”.
This latest atrocity comes less than a fortnight after a US man bragged on Facebook Live about his murder of a 74-year-old man in Cleveland, having also posted a video of the killing to the social network.
The platform’s chief, Mark Zuckerberg, subsequently acknowledged he had “a lot of work” to do after it emerged the murder clip had remained online for more than two hours despite Facebook having received complaints in the meantime.
YouTube has modified its content filter after complaints it had blocked political and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) videos.
Restricted mode is an optional filter designed to hide content that may be judged unsuitable for children.
But many prominent LGBT video-makers said their videos had been targeted.
YouTube said it had fixed an error and made more than 12 million “unintentionally filtered” videos available again.
The platform was criticised in March after several video-makers noticed a drop in advertising revenue and realised their content was being blocked in restricted mode.
The wide-reaching filters appeared to block videos referring to sexuality and gender identity, even if the content was not explicit.
“YouTube’s restricted mode has blocked a poem I wrote for a gay friend,” tweeted musician Bry O’Reilly.
Author Tyler Oakley added: “One of my recent videos ‘Eight Black LGBTQ+ Trailblazers Who Inspire Me’ is blocked because of this, I’m perplexed.”
YouTube said it had identified that its systems “were not working as intended”.
“We want to clarify that restricted mode should not filter out content belonging to individuals or groups based on certain attributes like gender, gender identity, political viewpoints, race, religion or sexual orientation,” it said in a blog post.
The company also said it would let people report videos they believed had been unfairly restricted and said it would offer more transparency about the types of content that would be filtered.
It said it would continue to restrict:
Discussion of alcohol or drugs, or videos showing alcohol consumption
Detailed conversations about sex
Music videos with adult themes including sex and drugs
Graphic depictions of violence, even in news videos
“Mature subjects” such as terrorism, war, crime, and political conflicts
“Though Restricted Mode will never be perfect, we hope to build on our progress so far to continue making our systems more accurate and the overall Restricted Mode experience better over time,” it said.
The Brain Tumour Charity has said there is insufficient scientific evidence linking mobile phone use with brain tumours, following a court ruling.
The Italian court, in Ivrea, agreed that a man’s brain tumour was linked to his mobile phone use.
It awarded Robert Romero 500 euros (£418/$535) a month in compensation.
He had claimed that using his business mobile phone for three or four hours a day, over a period of 15 years, led to the growth of the benign tumour.
The money will be paid by a body established to compensate people for work-based injuries.
There could yet be an appeal against the ruling, and the legal reasoning behind the judge’s decision is not due to be released for at least a few days.
“We know that many people are concerned about a possible connection between mobile phone use and the development of brain tumours,” said Dr David Jenkinson, chief scientific officer for the Brain Tumour Charity.
“However, the global research projects that have been conducted so far, involving hundreds of thousands of people, have found insufficient evidence that using a mobile phone increases the risk of developing a brain tumour.”
The decision of the court did not change the evidence, he added.
“Of course, it is right that researchers continue to explore whether any such link exists,” said Dr Jenkinson.
Mr Romero, whose profession was not reported, said he wanted people to be more aware about mobile phone use but did not want to “demonise” the devices.
His lawyer, Stefano Bertone from the law firm Ambrosio and Commodo, told the BBC his client currently has no plans to sue any of the handset manufacturers or the mobile phone industry itself.
He added that the firm has other cases in other parts of Italy.
“We have also been approached by an interesting number of people in the last 24 hours saying they have experienced the same kind of thing. And they can show they have accumulative use of mobile phones that’s exceeding 1,000 hours,” he said.
“No-one can pretend with definitive certainty to assess a legal case. Most opponents say there is no scientific certainty so therefore it is not true. That is not the case.”
Preliminary findings released in 2016 suggested a “low incidence” of brain and heart tumours in male rats exposed to doses of radiofrequency radiation totalling up to nine hours a day over a two-year period.
However, as it is not finished, the study has not yet been scrutinised by other scientists, a process known as peer reviewing, which is generally considered an essential stage of evaluating research.
Engineer Harry Huskey, who helped build many of the first ever computers, has died aged 101.
Dr Huskey was a key member of the team that built the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (Eniac) which first ran in February 1946.
Eniac is widely considered to be one of the first electronic, general purpose, programmable computers.
Dr Huskey also helped complete work on the Ace – the Automatic Computing Engine – designed by Alan Turing.
The Eniac was built at the University of Pennsylvania in the 1940s and, once complete, was more than 100ft (30m) long, weighed 30 tonnes, used 18,000 valves and 1,500 relays. Programming the massive machine to do different computational tasks involved rewiring its various units. Eniac was built to calculate the trajectory of shells for the US army.
Dr Huskey became involved with the development effort to create Eniac soon after joining Pennsylvania to teach mathematics to Naval recruits. His task was to make the punched card reader for the machine work and to write technical manuals describing how to operate it.
After the war, Dr Huskey travelled to the UK to help Alan Turing refine and complete the Ace. This was built at the National Physical Laboratory and in 1950, when it ran its first program, it was the fastest computer in the world.
He also helped design and build two other machines – the Swac (Standards Western Automatic Computer) and the G-15 which, despite weighing almost a tonne. was known as a personal computer because it could be operated by one person.
Dr Huskey spent his entire academic career involved with computing teaching at the University of California, Berkeley and was one of the founders of the computer science faculty at UC Santa Cruz.
“Harry basically lived through and participated in the entire span of the history of electronic computing,” Dag Spicer, a curator at the Computer History Museum, told the New York Times.
Mr Taylor studied psychology at university, but worked as an engineer at several aircraft companies and Nasa before joining the US Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Project Agency (Arpa) in 1965.
At the time, Arpa funded most of the country’s computer systems research.
In his role as the director of the organisation’s Information Processing Techniques Office, Mr Taylor wanted to address the fact different institutions were duplicating research on the limited number of computer mainframes available.
In particular, he wanted to make “timesharing” more efficient – the simultaneous use of each computer by multiple scientists using different terminals, who could share files and send messages to each other.
Mr Taylor was frustrated that the Pentagon could only communicate with three research institutions, whose timeshared computers it helped fund, by using three incompatible systems.
So, he proposed a scheme to connect all of Arpa’s sponsored bases together via a single network.
“I just decided that we were going to build a network that would connect these interactive communities into a larger community in such a way that a user of one community could connect to a distant community as though that user were on his local system,” he later recalled in an interview with the Charles Babbage Institute.
“Most of the people I talked to were not initially enamoured with the idea. I think some of the people saw it initially as an opportunity for someone else to come in and use their [computing cycles].”
Nevertheless, he was given $1m (£796,000) to pursue the project.
And in 1968, a year before Arpanet was established, he co-authored a prescient paper with a colleague.
“In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face,” it predicted.
“The programmed digital computer… can change the nature and value of communication even more profoundly than did the printing press and the picture tube, for, as we shall show, a well-programmed computer can provide direct access both to informational resources and to the processes for making use of the resources.”
Mr Taylor’s time at Arpa was also spent trying to see whether his country could make use of computer technology to solve logistics problems during the Vietnam war.
The White House had complained that it was getting conflicting reports about the number of enemies killed, bullets available and other details.
“The Army had one reporting system; the Navy had another; the Marine Corp had another,” Mr Taylor later recalled.
“It was clear that not all of these reports could be true.
“I think one specific example was that if the amount of sugar reported captured were true we would have cornered two-thirds of the world’s sugar supply, or something like that. It was ridiculous.”
His efforts led to a uniform method of data collection and the use of a computer centre at an air force base to collate it.
“After that the White House got a single report rather than several,” Mr Taylor said.
“That pleased them; whether the data was any more correct or not, I don’t know, but at least it was more consistent.”
Apple and Microsoft
Once Arpanet was up and running in 1969, Mr Taylor left the Pentagon and the following year he founded the Computer Science Laboratory of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (Xerox Parc).
There his team built Alto – a personal computer that claims several firsts. It was networked, controlled by a ball-driven mouse and used a graphical user interface (Gui).
Steve Jobs and others from Apple were given an early look, and it went on to inspire them to create the Apple Lisa and later the Apple Mac.
Its software included Bravo – a what-you-see-is-what-you-get word processor. Its primary developer, Charles Simonyi, later joined Microsoft where he created Word.
Despite their achievements, Mr Taylor became frustrated with Xerox’s failure to capitalise on his team’s work and quit in 1983.
Google has promised to allow rivals’ search engines and apps to be pre-installed on phones running its versions of Android in Russia.
The concession follows an out-of-court deal with the country’s competition watchdog.
In addition, Google has promised to develop a tool to make it easy for users to change their device’s default search engine.
Shares in Google’s local Russian rival, Yandex, rose more than 7% on the news.
It brings to an end a long-running battle between the US firm and Russia’s competition regulator, the Federal Antimonopoly Service (FAS).
Google had argued the regulator had no case because manufacturers could develop their own versions of Android or pre-install other apps of their choice.
But the FAS had argued that, despite its denials, Google was indeed “prohibiting” rival software to its own YouTube, Maps and Photos apps to be pre-installed alongside its own dominant version of Android.
The agency became involved after Yandex filed a complaint in February 2015.
Despite the nature of the settlement, Google will still have to pay a 438m rouble ($7.8; £6.2m) fine imposed after it failed to appeal the case last August.
“We are happy to have reached a commercial agreement with Yandex and a settlement with Russia’s competition regulator, the Federal Antimonopoly Service (FAS), resolving the competition case over the distribution of Google apps on Android,” a spokeswoman for Google told the BBC.
Yandex’s chief executive Arkady Volozh declared the settlement “an important day for Russian consumers”.
“I am thankful to the Federal Antimonopoly Service for applying the law in a manner that effectively and efficiently restores competition to the market for the benefit of Russian users, as competition always breeds innovation,” he added.
The EU continues to pursue similar claims against Google, saying the firm is “requiring and incentivising” Android hardware manufacturers to exclusively use its services.
In the US, the firm added a third fewer new members than the same period a year ago, while overseas members fell 22%.
Netflix blamed the drop partly on shifting some of its popular shows to the second quarter of the year.
The firm said its House of Cards series, which last year debuted in the first quarter but for this year has been pushed into the second quarter, was the main reason for the lower-than-expected subscriber growth.
Netflix said it still expected to add 8.15 million new members in total for the first half of the year, just below the 8.42 it added in the first half of last year.
By this weekend, the firm said it expected to reach 100 million subscribers globally.
“It’s a good start,” said chief executive Reed Hastings.
He said that the growth of the global internet meant the opportunity for the firm was still “gigantic”, and said the firm planned to continue investing in films and shows aimed at increasing its membership.
“We have come to see these quarterly variances as mostly noise in the long-term growth trend and adoption of internet TV,” he added.
Analysis by Dave Lee, BBC North America technology reporter, San Francisco
As ever, Wall Street is obsessed with user growth above almost any other metric a technology company can offer.
Netflix didn’t add as many new users in the last quarter as investors had been expecting, both in the US and internationally.
Aggressive marketing is still a huge part of Netflix’s expenditure – $1bn expected this year – so it shows those new subscribers really aren’t coming easy.
But I think things will probably improve this year with the roll-out of the new seasons of House of Cards and Stranger Things, both blockbuster shows that represent the very best of their “Originals” brand.
The firm increased revenues by over a third to $2.64bn for the quarter compared to the first three months of last year, while net income rose to $178m from $28m.
Its shares fell in after-hours trading, dropping 3% with investors disappointed by the slower-than-expected growth.
Netflix said it would continue to focus on original programming, aiming to “please diverse tastes with a wide breadth of content”.
The company started making its own shows in 2013, with House of Cards one of its first big hits and Stranger Things more recently. Netflix plans to spend more on original content this year and reduce outlays on licensed material such as movies.
Christophe Deschamps was watching a basketball game with his wife and three children when he received an alert on his smartphone.
The home security system told him something was wrong, so he quickly accessed the video feed on his phone.
“I could see smoke,” he says. Their home, in the Wallonia region of southern Belgium, was on fire.
The family’s thoughts immediately turned to their two Bernese Mountain dogs – Lisbonne and Hawaii – locked in the garage. A terrible family tragedy was threatening to unfold.
The video images now showed the smoke getting thicker and brightness coming from flames off-camera.
The fire alarm had already alerted the firefighters, so the Deschamps family rushed home as quickly as they could.
“It was more important for us to save the dogs than the house,” says Christophe. “My wife was crying and panicking, thinking the dogs could die.”
Fortunately, Lisbonne and Hawaii were saved with just 20cm of air left to breathe above the floor of the smoke-filled garage. But the fire damage to the house took six months to repair.
The dogs’ lucky escape was due to the indoor security camera Christophe had installed.
The smart camera, made by Netatmo, sends alerts when it hears an alarm – whether smoke, carbon monoxide or security – and automatically starts recording.
It is also one of the first smart home cameras featuring face recognition technology capable of distinguishing between people it knows and strangers.
Parents working late can receive alerts when their kids arrive home, for example, and will receive an “unknown face seen” alert if someone breaks in.
The French company says evidence collected by its smart cameras has led to the successful prosecution of burglars.
The connected home security market is expanding fast, with companies such as Withings, Nest, D-Link, Netgear, Philips, Panasonic – not to mention the tech behemoths Apple, Amazon and Samsung – all offering an expanding array of internet-connected smart gadgets, from thermostats to motion-sensitive cameras with infrared and audio capability.
“We put the connected home security market at 95.4 million unit sales in 2016,” says Francesco Radicati, a technology specialist at consultancy Ovum.
“Service providers, such as Qivicon, AT&T Digital Life, and Vivint Smart Home, are selling device multi-packs including multiple sensors, and these are proving very popular.
“We estimate the market will grow to 744 million devices sold in 2021.”
Innovations are coming on to the market thick and fast.
For example, connected light bulb firm LIFX has produced a version that can beam infrared light outdoors, enabling a compatible security camera, such as the Nest Cam Outdoor, to see better in the dark.
The key innovation, however, has been the integration of the smartphone into such connected networks, giving users remote control wherever they have an internet connection.
But aren’t all these security cameras intrusive and even a little voyeuristic?
Netatmo has addressed this issue by making its Welcome camera programmable, so you can disable recording for individuals you specify. And most camera systems can be disabled remotely.
It isn’t just our homes that technology is helping keep safe.
Cars are also a common target for thieves. This is why Matej Persolja, 33, founded CarLock, a company based in Nova Gorica, Slovenia, and San Francisco in the US.
CarLock’s system plugs into a vehicle’s onboard diagnostics port and sends an alarm to your phone if your vehicle is moved, the engine starts, it detects unusual vibration, or if the gadget is disconnected.
Mr Persolja started the business after thinking his car had been stolen. It turned out his car had only been moved to make way for construction work taking place in the area.
“Before I learned that, I was almost certain my car had been stolen and I still remember that awful feeling,” he says.
The CarLock system enables owners to track the location of their car if it has been stolen and also acts like a telematics box recording driving behaviour and the general health of the engine.
And there are a growing number of remote control apps for cars on the market.
Viper’s SmartStart app – currently only available in the US and Canada – enables you to start your car, lock and unlock it, and track its movements remotely using your smartphone.
Remote starting is useful for de-icing your car in the mornings while you get ready for work and have breakfast. Even if someone sees the car running and a thief smashes a window to steal it, the physical key is still needed to drive the car off.
You can also keep an eye on your kids’ driving habits and receive an alert if they take the car beyond a geographical point that you specify.
Ford is even integrating Amazon’s Alexa voice-activated software into its cars, enabling drivers to remotely start their cars with a voice command and personal identification number.
For more than two thousand years people have believed that joint pain could be triggered by bad weather, but the link has never been proven.
But now, by harnessing the power of thousands of volunteers, doctors hope to unravel the mystery. And the new technique could offer countless solutions to a whole host of ailments.
“I’m always in pain, 24/7,” says Becky Mason, sitting at home on her sofa in Alsager near Manchester.
Like millions of people around the world she suffers from pains in her muscles and stiffness in her joints.
“I know, if it’s going to be a very damp cold day, it’s likely that my pain is going to be worse.”
She has discussed it with her GP and has always wondered if there really is a link between her pain and the weather.
Becky isn’t alone. The link between joint pain and bad weather has long been suspected by patients and medical professionals alike and the theory dates back at least to Roman times and possible earlier.
“Is it an old wives tale? Am I imagining it?” she asks.
It’s a question she finally hopes to answer, not by visiting a hospital or undergoing tests, but simply by using her smartphone.
Each day she enters information about how she feels into an app on her phone, the phone’s GPS pinpoints her location, pulls the latest weather information from the internet, and fires a package of data to a team of researchers.
On its own Becky’s data is of limited interest, but she isn’t acting alone. More than 13,000 volunteers have signed up for the same study, sending vast quantities of information into a database – more than four million data points so far.
The app, called “Cloudy with a Chance of Pain” is part of a research project being run by Will Dixon. He is a consultant rheumatologist at Salford Royal Hospital and has spent years researching joint pain.
“At almost every clinic I run, one or more patients will tell me that their joint pains are better or worse because of the weather” he says, but until now he has never had the means of collecting enough data to find a conclusive answer.
Which is perhaps a good point to explain Will Dixon’s other job title – Professor of Digital Epidemiology.
Traditional epidemiologists study health and disease in particular populations. Usually it means collecting data in person – asking patients to visit you, or heading out into the field. ‘Shoe leather epidemiology’, it is sometimes called.
But digital epidemiology allows patients to send detailed information over the internet – which means they can do it more regularly, and of course you can get many more people to take part, thousands more; numbers that would be unthinkable using the old methods.
By combing through that data, Professor Dixon hopes it will be possible to find correlations and clues that would have been hidden to doctors just a decade ago. His team will analyse the data over the coming year, and hope to find a definitive answer to the question.
World Hacks is a new BBC team looking at global problems.
The technique isn’t just limited to arthritis research.
Another study underway in the US has recruited more than 20,000 participants using an app that asks them to say “ahhhhhhh” into their phone.
Named mPower, and built using technology developed by British academic Max Little, the project hopes to find out more about the onset and progression of Parkinson’s disease. If the “ahhhhhhh” sound is smooth and unbroken, it has likely come from a healthy patient. But if it breaks and wavers, it could suggest that the patient may have Parkinson’s.
By monitoring the precise pattern and pitch of the noise, it may even be possible to determine how advanced the disease has become, or how strongly its symptoms are being felt at a given moment. Using that information, it could allow patients to take much more specific doses of a drug to help manage the disease. The software is even being used in a clinical trial for a new drug.
And again, it is the accumulation of vast amounts of data, volunteered by thousands of participants, that is making the study possible.
Another app, soon to be launched, will allow users to photograph their plate of food, and use artificial intelligence to work out what’s on the plate. The technology could help people determine the nutritional content of their meal, and allow public health bodies to track how well any particular population is eating.
It is being developed by Marcel Salathe, also a Professor of Digital Epidemiology and founder of what is likely the world’s first lab dedicated to the field of study.
He thinks the discipline could have particular benefits in parts of the world where basic medical infrastructure is lacking, but lots of people have smart-phones. Digital epidemiology could become the reporting network through which sickness outbreaks are initially detected, he says.
But vast amounts of data don’t come without their own unique set of difficulties, he warns.
“The data can be extremely noisy,” he explains. “Dealing with very large data sets and finding a needle in the haystack is very challenging from a technical perspective.”
Perhaps the most interesting part of this new technique is the motivation of the people donating their data.
‘Cloudy with a Chance of Pain’ may never reap rewards for Becky herself, yet she seems quite happy to spend her time putting her data into a smartphone app and then sending this off to a remote location.
“When you’re in pain all the time, it’s easy to get low,” she says “I’m at home and I can’t work which makes me feel useless. But [with this app] I can still be helpful, and that’s so powerful in my tiny little world, it helps me in a massive way.”
Listen to BBC World Hacks on the World Service or listen back on the iPlayer.
Police have asked residents of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, New York and Pennsylvania to be on the alert, saying suspect could be anywhere.
Cleveland police department have issued a photo of Mr Stephens, 37, on its website, describing him as a black male, 6ft 1in (1.86m) and 244lb (110kg).
Cleveland Police Chief Calvin Williams told reporters on Monday that Mr Stephens, who has a licence to carry a concealed firearm, is armed “without a doubt”.
Cleveland officials have also offered a $50,000 (£39,805) reward for information that leads to his location.
His mobile phone signal was last tracked on Sunday afternoon in Erie, Pennsylvania.
Cleveland Police Chief Calvin Williams said in a press conference on Monday morning: “Steve is still out there some place… we’re still asking Steve to turn himself in, but if he doesn’t we’ll find him.”
FBI Special Agent Stephen Anthony said: “Quite frankly, he could be in a lot of places.”
US Marshall Peter Elliot said law enforcement agencies across the US were helping create a dragnet to “make this individual’s world very, very, very small”.
Investigators said Mr Stephens’ boast about other killings was still not verified.
Police say the victim in Sunday’s graphic video appeared to have been selected at random.
The suspect approaches Mr Godwin and asks him to say the name of a woman believed to be the gunman’s former girlfriend, before shooting him in the head.
“Can you do me a favour?” asks the gunman. “Can you say Joy Lane?”
The victim says: “Joy Lane.”
Mr Stephen says: “Yeah, she’s the reason why all this about to happen to you. How old are you?”
The grandfather and father of nine appears to try to shield himself by holding up a plastic bag.
The woman, Joy Lane, confirmed to CBS News that she and Mr Stephen had been in a “relationship for several years”.
“I am sorry that all of this has happened. My heart & prayers goes out to the family members of the victim(s). Steve really is a nice guy… he is generous with everyone he knows.
“He was kind and loving to me and my children,” she wrote in a text message.
Maggie Green, the suspect’s mother, told CNN that he was “mad with his girlfriend. That’s why he is shooting people and he won’t stop until his mother or girlfriend tell him to stop.”
Mr Stephens is employed by Beech Brook, a children’s behavioural health agency, according to a company spokesman.
Scotland’s remote St Kilda archipelago has been digitally recreated in video game Minecraft.
Games company ImmersiveMinds spent more than 125 hours and used more than three million virtual bricks on the 1:1 scale map of the islands.
St Kilda lies about 40 miles (64km) west of North Uist, the nearest inhabited place to the archipelago.
The last islanders left the main island of Hirta in 1930 after life there became unsustainable.
People only now live on Hirta on a temporary basis to work at the military site, or on wildlife conservation projects.
The Minecraft version of St Kilda has been made to help mark Tuesday’s World Heritage Day.
The map is available for public download to allow gamers all over the world to explore the archipelago’s history, heritage, stories, people and landscapes.
Nick Smith, heritage manager at Western Isles’ local authority Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, said: “This is a really exciting way to use technology so that people can discover a remote and difficult to access place.”
The team from ImmersiveMinds worked closely with Jonathan Wordsworth, the St Kilda archaeologist with The National Trust for Scotland, to ensure that this digital world is as accurate as possible.
The virtual build features abandoned blackhouses, boats and underground structures called souterrains.